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Areas of Volcanic and earthquake activity.

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Introduction

Areas of Volcanic and earthquake activity. In an area of volcanic and earthquake activity, there is potential for a lot of benefits as well as hazards which result from tectonic activity. The benefits are : lava and ash weather rapidly, basic lava may produce fertile soils ideal for farming ( e.g. the area surrounding Mt Etna) if it is carefully managed. The fertility of acid lava is much lower. Igneous rocks contain minerals such as gold, copper, lead and silver, which are very profitable if located. Extinct volcanoes may provide defensive settlement sites (e.g. Edinburgh). Igneous rock is used for building purposes, so that provides an economic use that the rock can provide. Geothermal power that the volcano can give off, can be isolated and turned into electricity ( e.g. Iceland and New Zealand). Geysers and volcanoes provide a good tourist attraction that can be economically beneficial, generating revenue for local communities (e.g. Yellowstone National Park). The hazards that these can produce include : the fact that earthquakes destroy building s that collapse and crush and kill people. Violent eruptions with blast waves and gas may destroy life and property ( e.g. Mt St Helens). Earthquakes and Volcanic eruptions can set off Tidal Waves/Tsunamis which wipe out buildings on the coast, drown many people and destroy land and crops. Ejection of ash and lava ruins crops and kills animals. The tremors and ash and explosions interfere with communications, this can inversely prevent rescue workers finding trapped people, drowning people etc, resulting in possible deaths. Short term climatic changes occur as volcanic dust absorbs solar energy, lowering temperatures and increasing rainfall. These benefits and hazards can wreck an area, then after a period of reconstruction and redevelopment, they will benefit and area. This is true in the area of the Philippines where Mt Pinatubo is located on a destructive plate margin where the Philippines Plate moves towards the subduction zone of the Eurasian Plate. ...read more.

Middle

Then in the Mid West it was already having a wet year when record setting spring and summer rains hit. The rain ran off soggy ground and into rapidly rising rivers. Several parts of the central USA had over 200 per cent more rain, so the ground was already full with water. When the rain filled into the rivers, the river level rose and broke over the height of the levis, with this higher level of levee , the water had much more speed on the decent, so it flooded onto the floodplain but because the land was filled with water already, the water continued in a random path destroying everything in its path. The areas where meanders had been cut through proved wrong because a river naturally meanders and so when the river was straightened it naturally meandered itself and so broke its banks and flooded onto the surrounding land. Also due to the cutting through of the river, there was now a lot more water in the river so it was easier to flood both the levees and the dams. This flood caused $10.5 billion damage, 45 deaths, 74,000 evacuees, 45,000 destroyed houses and the destruction of $6.5 billion worth of crops. So the prospects of using the area for economic benefit had been greatly reduced, power plants lost their stock so their business was in a lot of trouble, roads had been destroyed so transport was limited to other areas, barge trade down the river was haltered so more business was missing out. As a result of the flood many people will have considered living in that area after what had happened. There may be some significant population shifts as a result of the flood. Some towns may decide not to rebuild. Officials from a few cities, including Cedar City, Missouri, may actually consider closing their towns down. So a bad outcome for the area f Mississippi. ...read more.

Conclusion

As the area has high rainfall and it is a glaciated area, there are corries which provide the most suitable place for a reservoir. These provide many jobs, and as well as supplying Snowdonia with water, they have a surplus of water and also supply places like Liverpool too because they have a water deficit. Some of reservoirs include Marchilyn Mawr reservoir and Ffyonnon Llugwy reservoir. Problems that can arise include flooding which is a major hazard to settlements in the valley. Forestry is another industry where many jobs are provide, it is an especially good area for this because there are mainly coniferous trees and they suit these conditions, high rainfall, thin soils. Land that was used for farming has been turned into plantations of forests. This takes place mainly West of Bethesda. The cutting down of these forests destroy habitats for a lot of wildlife which will struggle to find another suitable habitat due to the undulating land and its harsh conditions. HEP is very suited to these areas of Snowdonia because there is a lot of rain, many rivers, steep gradients, mountainous area, high and low points that are big and provide lakes and rivers which suit underground HEP. An example of this is the Dinorwic pump storage system, it uses the Llyn Peris lake. Tourism which include activities of skiing, walking, climbing, caravanning, camping, ( The wild outdoors). provides many opportunities for hotels, B & B's, shops etc. People come also for the scenery and the fact that it is different to what hey are used to. This brings in a lot of money to various businesses, but creates rubbish, destruction of roads and footpaths, the scaring of wildlife away from their habitats, noise pollution, damage to fences leading to escaped animals. So Snowdonia is an area of natural beauty, many business opportunities but which can create problems mainly to the surrounding settlements and residents. Here is a map of Snowdonia:- Bethesda ...read more.

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