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AS Unit 3b: Applied Geographical Skills

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Introduction

AS Unit 3b: Applied Geographical Skills "Urban Geography fieldwork Enquiry" into the central commercial area of Winchester Investigation Design and Planning The aim of the enquiry is to investigate and explain the patter of land use in the central commercial area of Winchester by formulating and testing a number of hypotheses: * Similar land uses cluster together * Land use is related to Land values * Land values are related to accessibility The city of Winchester lies within central Hampshire, in the South of England. It is a medieval town situated in between two hills to the south and north of the city. It is also a good bridging point across the river Itchen. Many of the streets have been designated pedestrian roads, and this particularly applies to the high street and surrounding area where we are going to conduct our study. The expected pattern of land values within the city centre will be that there will be a peak land value intersection, and from this the value of land will decrease the further you move away from this. The prices will be higher on the high street and lower on side alleys and behind high street shops. The reason I think this is simple supply and demand. Areas at the centre of the C.B.D will have huge demand for every square foot as they have the widest and most accessible areas to try and sell their goods to shoppers. In Winchester there is a system in place where upon no building in the C.B.D can b over three stories high. This means that prices are pushed up as there is huge demand for each space. This is also supported by the bid rent theory. The highest bidder will always get the best land use. The highest bidder is likely to be the one who can obtain the maximum profit from that site, and so can pay the highest rent. ...read more.

Middle

The Spearman's rank graph was used to show pedestrian flow around a point and the distance of that point form the PLVI. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION My original hypotheses were * Similar land uses cluster together * Land use is related to Land values * Land values are related to accessibility Using the colour chloropleth map we can easily identify some key features. We can see that most of the comparison or Chain shops occupy the main high street. They are quite clustered together and occupy around the PLVI and mainly to the left of it. There also seems to be a pattern of Food service shops along Jewry Street. These occupy most of the available floor space. However retail services tend to be very spread out throughout the city but they only occupy areas away from the high street, and mainly down side alleys. By comparing this to the land values map it is clear to me that Land use is related to land value. As in my introduction I said that Comparison shops would tend to occupy the most expensive shop types. The most expensive shop types are directly on the high street and very near to the PLVI. I can also see that the cheapest shop types are generally overrun by financial services. This is quite apparent in the northern area of the Land use map. By using nearest neighbour analysis, I can find out rateable values for each shop type. They are as follows: Comparison goods: 0.44- clustered distribution Convenience goods: 0.86- quite evenly spaced Financial services: 0.27- very clustered Retail services: 0.79- relatively evenly spaced Food services: 0.10-very clustered distribution Specialist shops: 0.74- relatively evenly spaced This means that the independent variable (Number of pedestrians) increases as the dependant variable decreases. (Distance from the PLVI.) Nearest neighbour, suggest that only some shop patterns will cluster together. I am quite happy with all the data I obtained from the nearest neighbour data. ...read more.

Conclusion

This means that we would have more information about the flow of pedestrians around the city, and where the most accessible areas are, and it would give us that information much clearer and precise than we did. By doing counts outside restaurants as well we could have got indications of the flow of people who passed outside restaurants and those who went in, and would also show us how many people from the high street made their way up Jewry Street to go and eat. We could have also found out the threshold populations for each shop type in the area of study, as I think that location of shops is directly linked to the shops threshold population. A shop with a large threshold population will need a prime location in order to justify it setting up in that area in the first place. It will probably also make more money as it will have a better reputation and bigger sales. We could have also carried out land use and land values on shops that are above ground level. This may be of use as some shop types may prefer to be on the second level, and we did no take this into account. This could have made some shop types nearest neighbour analysis completely wrong. We could have also done a questionnaire and found out the sphere of influence of each shop. This would show us how each of the pedestrians we counted got to Winchester. This would in turn show us the accessibility of Winchester to the rest of the south and maybe beyond. Finally we could work out if people travelled by car where they parked as this may have a direct influence on the location of some shops, as they would get quite a lot of pedestrians passing them. This is also apparent outside the bus stops and train station. By doing this we would be able to draw better conclusions from better graphs and data we collected, and would broaden our knowledge of the area of Winchester CBD. Nick Markham Winchester Fieldwork ...read more.

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