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Attractions in Durham

Free essay example:

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Attractions in Durham bring people in from surrounding and far away areas.

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Contents

Introduction                                                                                                    3

Location Map                                                                                                 4

Applied Understanding                                                                                   5

Methodology                                                                                                   7

Street Map                                                                                                      8

Questionnaire                                                                                                 9

Completed Questionnaire                                                                             10

Quality Index                                                                                                 11

Completed Quality Index                                                                               12

Annotated Photos                                                                                          13

Pedestrian and Vehicle Survey                                                                      16

Completed Pedestrian and Vehicle Surveys                                                  17

Collation                                                                                                          18

Comments                                                                                                       19

Presentation                                                                                                    20

Interpretation                                                                                                   24

Evaluation                                                                                                       26                                                                                                    

Bibliography

Introduction

Attractions in Durham bring people in from surrounding and far away areas?

Where?

Durham city is a district of County Durham, in North East England. It is the county town of County Durham, and the largest City near-by is Newcastle-Upon-Tyne. The River Wear flows north through the city, making an incised meander which encloses the centre on three sides to create Durham's "peninsula". Durham is a hilly city, claiming to be built upon the symbolic seven hills. Upon the most central and prominent position high above the Wear, the cathedral dominates the skyline. The steep riverbanks are densely wooded, adding to the picturesque beauty of the city. West of the city centre, another river, the River Browney, drains south to join the Wear to the south of the city. Durham city has a large Sphere of influence due to it attractions (see figure 1)

What?

I am going to find out how popular Durham is because of its’ attractions such as the shops and services, Cathedral, University etc. and how far people travel to visit Durham. This will then tell me why Durham is a well-known and attractive place, also it will tell me from which places people have come from and how they travel for example by bus, train or car etc.

Why?

I have decided to investigate that attractions in Durham bring people in from surrounding and far away areas, because I live in Willington which is about 8.2 miles from Durham and I am interested about how many people visit Durham and from which city, town or village.

Location Map

image13.png

Figure 1

Applied Understanding.

I am going to investigate Durham’s popularity of services and facilities and why people come into Durham from far away and surrounding areas.

Durham is situated 20 miles to the south of Newcastle and 13 miles to the south west of Sunderland, England. The River Wear flows north through the city, making an incised meander which encloses the centre on three sides to create Durham's "peninsula", also Durham cathedral dominates the skyline. The steep riverbanks are densely wooded, adding to the picturesque beauty of the city. West of the city centre, another river, the River Browney, drains south to join the Wear to the south of the city. The county town of County Durham, Durham is located in the City of Durham local government district, which extends beyond the city, and has a total population of 87,656, and covers 186.68 square kilometres. The unparished area of Durham had a population of 29,091, whilst the built-up area of Durham had a population of 42,939. The centre of Durham sits on a peninsula created by the River Wear. At the base of the peninsula is the Market Place, which still hosts regular markets; a permanent indoor market is also situated just off the Market Place. The Market Place and surrounding streets are one of the main commercial and shopping areas of the city. From the Market Place, The Bailey leads south past Palace Green: The Bailey is almost entirely owned and occupied by University and Cathedral.

There are three old roads out of the Market Place. Saddler Street heads South-Easterly, towards Elvet Bridge, The Bailey and Prebends Bridge. Elvet Bridge leads to the Elvet area of the city, Durham Prison and the South; Prebends Bridge is smaller and provides access from The Bailey to South Durham. Heading west, Silver Street leads out of the Market Place towards Framwellgate Bridge and North Road, the other main shopping area of the city. From here, the city spreads out into the Framwelgate, Crossgate, Neville's Cross and viaduct districts, the other main shopping area of the city. Beyond the viaduct lie the outlying districts of Framwellgate Moor and Neville's Cross. Heading north from the Market Place leads to Claypath. The road curves back round to the east and beyond it lies Gilesgate, Gilesgate Moor and Dragonville.

Many of the inner city areas are now inhabited by students living in shared houses, as many as 70% of the dwellings are occupied by students. In Durham there is a high bid rent in the centre of the town. This is because land gets more expensive when you get nearer the centre of town. It follows Burgess’s theory of the city, which goes: CBD, Inner city, Outer city, Suburbs. As you go further away from the CBD then the prices get cheaper because land becomes less valuable. However this is not true for the suburbs. This is because it’s where the families live and the adults can afford to commute to work from a further distance.

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The nearest major city to Durham is Newcastle. The Road that connects it is the A1 (M). This road also connects Durham to other major Cities across the Country.image24.png

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Deciding where a settlement ranks on a hierarchy is by using the population of the settlement. The larger the population, the higher the settlement is placed on the hierarchy. In the UK, the largest city in terms of population is London, which most people would agree is the most important settlement in the country and so deserves to be placed on the top of the urban hierarchy for the UK. Different sources will have different numbers for how many people are needed for a place to be called a city rather than a town for instance. image31.png

On a hierarchy, Durham is a City which means that there is a population of up to 1 million people and on average a city is 100km apart. However Durham actually does not consist of up to 1 million people but is still classed as a city because of its many shopping streets and several edge-of-city centres that are national stores, department stores and hypermarkets which are a main factor of attracting people from surrounding and far away areas.

Methodology

I am going to use five types of data collection for my investigation to prove my hypothesis correct that attractions in Durham city bring people in from surrounding and far away places.

The methods of data collection I am going to use are:

  • Street plan
  • Questionnaire
  • Quality index
  • Annotated photos
  • Pedestrian and Vehicle survey

Street plan

I am going to use a street plan to show the places I am going to investigate. This will help me give a detailed overview of Durham and how the land uses are used. Also this will show how many services and facilities Durham offers to a large scale of people. Also my street map will help me with my other methods of recording such as my questionnaire, quality index and the photos I am going to annotate, because I will need to know which places to visit in Durham to carry out my investigations. So the street map will come in use throughout my investigation, therefore I will have to make sure it is clear and detailed. I will get my map from ‘Google maps’ as it is accurate and up to date, and therefore this will help me with my other methods of recording.

Questionnaire

I will use a questionnaire because it is a good and useful way of finding out where people have travelled from, for what purpose, and what they think about a certain place i.e. Durham. I am going to produce 50 copies of my questionnaire which I will complete in 5 different places, which means I am going to ask 10 people in each of the locations; prince bishops place, Gala Theatre, Bus Station, Market place and Silver Street. I will record my questionnaires on the 7th of February 2009, from 11am till 1pm.

Quality index

The quality index will tell me how demanding Durham and its services and facilities are; this may also indicate how far and often people are prepared to travel to access Durham and its services, because the higher the quality of goods and services the more people Durham will attract. I am going to produce about 10 copies of my Quality index, 2 in each of the locations where I am going to do my questionnaires. I am going to record my quality index on the 16th of February 2009, from 2pm till 2:30pm.  

Annotated photos

I am going to annotate photos to show how Durham and its attractions look, why they are attractive and to whom they attract, this is a good way of recording as it gives a visual view of Durham and its facilities and so it will show that people come from surrounding areas for the retail outlets and from faraway areas for places such as Durham University. I am going to take the pictures on different days from 14th February till 21st February 2009, this is because some attractions in Durham may be open at different times to visit.  

Pedestrian and Vehicle survey  

Surveys are a good way of finding out how many people come into the city of Durham, because it gives an indication of the general population of shoppers and tourists. Also this will help me prove my hypothesis because the more people come into Durham, the attractive and popular Durham is. I am going to carry out my survey on the 16th of February 2009 from 2:30pm at Framwellgate bridge and at Leazes Road which is beside the Gala Theatre. I am going to count how many people/vehicle go past me at each of the locations for 1 minute. I am going to do this 5 times for each location and find out the average to give me an estimate of how many people visit Durham and how bus Durham’s roads are.  

Street map

Questionnaire

Date:                                                                                               Name:

Gender:    Male / Female                                                                Age:     under 13 / 13-21 / 22+

Location:                                                                                         Climate:

  1. How far have you travelled to get to Durham?

      Under 2 miles                                                                           3-6 miles

       7-15 miles                                                                               Over 15 miles

        2.     How often do you visit Durham?

       Everyday                                                                                Once a week

       2-4 times a week                                                                    Once a month                

       Once in 2-6 months                                                                Rarely (first visit)

  1.  What is your purpose for visiting Durham?

       Shopping                                                                                Leisure

       Entertainment                                                                         Working

       Education                                                                               Other

If OTHER, please state …………………………………………………………...

  1. How did you travel to Durham?

       Car                                                                                         Bus

       Walk                                                                                       Train

       Bike                                                                                         Van

       Coach                                                                                     Other

If OTHER, please state …………………………………………………………...

  1. Do you think transport systems in Durham are efficient?

      Yes                                                                                          No

  1. Do you think the retail outlets in Durham are adequate for your needs?

     Yes                                                                                           No

  1. Are you going to use any of these services today?

      Bank                                                                                        Clothing shops

     Post office                                                                                 Travel agent

     Furniture shops                                                                         Electrical goods shops

     None of above

If NONE OF ABOVE, please state………………………………………………….

  1. How would you rate the following? (1= Poor, 3=Good, 5= Excellent)

       Variety of shops                                                                     General environment

      Quality of goods in shops                                                        Transport facilities

      Leisure facilities                                                                       Entertainment

Comments: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Quality index

Please indicate how good you think Durham’s environment and its facilities are by circling the appropriate number. For example 1 being poor, 3 being good and 5 being excellent.

Environment (surroundings of Durham)

Poor

1

2

3

4

5

Excellent

General land use

Poor

1

2

3

4

5

Excellent

Retail outlets (cloth shops/ local shops)

Poor

1

2

3

4

5

Excellent

Range of goods (low-cost/high-cost)

Poor

1

2

3

4

5

Excellent

Quality of goods

Poor

1

2

3

4

5

Excellent

Leisure facilities

Poor

1

2

3

4

5

Excellent

Transport facilities

Poor

1

2

3

4

5

Excellent

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image02.png

image03.pngimage04.png

image05.png

Gender

1st count

2nd count

3rd count

4th count

5th count

Average

Male

Female

Pedestrian Survey (Framwellgate Bridge)

Vehicle Survey (Leazes Road)

1st count

2nd count

3rd count

4th count

5th count

Average

No. Cars

Collation - Results

1. How far have you travelled to get to Durham?

Under 2 miles

10% - 5 people

3-6 miles

46% - 23 people

7-15 miles

38% - 19 people

Over 15 miles

6% - 3 people

2. How often do you visit Durham?

Everyday

8% - 4 people

Once a week

42% - 21 people

2-4 times a week

22% - 11 people

Once a month

24% - 12 people

Once in 2-6 months

2% - 1 person

Rarely (first visit)

2% - 1 person

3. What is your purpose for visiting Durham? (This may not add up to 100% as some people ticked more than one box)

Shopping

88% - 44 people

Leisure

28% - 14 people

Entertainment

40% - 20 people

Working

6% - 3 people

Education

10% - 5 people

Other

2% - 1 person

4. How did you travel to Durham?

Car

36% - 18 people

Bus

56% - 28 people

Walk

4% - 2 people

Train

2% - 1 person

Bike

2% - 1 person

Van

0%

Coach

0%

Other

0%

5. Do you think transport systems in Durham are efficient?

Yes

98% - 49 people

No

2% - 1 person

6. Do you think the retail outlets in Durham are adequate for your needs?

Yes

100% - 50 people

No

0%

7. Are you going to use any of these services today? (This may not add up to 100% as some people ticked more than one box)

Bank

26% - 13 people

Clothing shops

88% - 44 people

Post office

2% - 1 person

Travel agent

0%

Furniture shops

4% - 2 people

Electrical goods shops

2% - 1 person

None of above

2% - 1 person

8. How would you rate the following?

1

2

3

4

5

Variety of shops

0%

0%

4%

66%

30%

Quality of goods in shops

0%

0%

6%

66%

28%

Leisure facilities

4%

2%

14%

58%

22%

General environment

0%

2%

7%

54%

37%

Transport facilities

0%

2%

6%

40%

52%

Entertainment

4%

4%

8%

66%

18%

Comments

  • Transport systems should be improved.
  • Durham is a good place to come and do my occasional shopping.
  • Transport systems are excellent and very efficient.
  • Even though I live in Newcastle I like to come to Durham and do my shopping.
  • The atmosphere and environment of Durham is very nice.
  • Durham has lots of attractions which I can have a look at.

Presentation

  1. How far have you travelled to get to Durham?

image06.png

  1. How often do you visit Durham?

image07.png

  1. What is your purpose for visiting Durham?

image08.png

  1. How did you travel to Durham?

image09.pngimage09.pngimage09.pngimage09.pngimage09.pngimage09.pngimage09.pngimage09.pngimage09.png

Car            

image11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.png

Bus  

image11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.pngimage11.png

image14.png

Walk            

image15.png

Train  

image16.png

Bike  

Van

Coach

Other

One object/picture represents two people; half of a picture represents one person.

5.    Do you think transport systems in Durham are efficient?

image17.png

  1. Do you think the retail outlets in Durham are adequate for your needs?

image18.png

  1. Are you going to use to use any of these services today?

image20.pngimage20.pngimage20.pngimage19.png

Bank  

Clothingimage21.pngimage21.pngimage21.pngimage21.pngimage21.pngimage23.pngimage21.pngimage21.pngimage21.pngimage21.pngimage21.png

Shops  

image25.png

Post          

Office          

Travel

Agent

image26.png

Furniture

Shops

image27.png

Electrical    

Goods    

Shops

None         image28.png

One object/picture represents four people; quarter of a picture represents one person.

  1. How would you rate the following?

image29.png

Interpretation

I am going to interpret my data to show links to my hypothesis, this will then help me to prove whether the hypothesis is correct or not.

            The results for the first question of how far people have travelled to get to Durham has immediately proved part of my hypothesis correct as 6% have travelled 15 miles or more and although this is not a vast majority it is still indicates that people do travel far distances to visit Durham’s facilities and services. 7-15 miles could also be classed as travelling a long distance so this makes my hypothesis even stronger as 38% had travelled that distance to access Durham. Also 56% have travelled under 2 miles and 3-6 miles to access Durham which means that the majority of people visit Durham from the surrounding areas which again proves my hypothesis correct.

        The results for how often Durham gets visited are that 42%, nearly half of the people I asked said that they visit Durham at least once a week, 22% visit 2-4 times a week and 8% visit Durham everyday which clearly shows that Durham is a popular place for its attractions maybe. 26% visit Durham occasionally as in once a month or once in 2-6 months which could be the people who have travelled a far distance to access Durham’s facilities. Only 2% said that they rarely visit or it is their first visit.

        The results for the purpose of visiting Durham make it clear Durham is an attractive place for shopping as 88% said that one of the purposes was shopping which is a huge percentage. Entertainment was the next best purpose for visiting Durham as 40% agreed that Durham is suitable for meeting the purposes of entertainment, for example the Gala Theatre. Also 28% said that Durham is also a good place for leisure as there is bowling ally and many swimming pools popular to all age groups. 10% visit Durham for education purposes, they could be students at the University of Durham and may travel into Durham everyday which could explain the 10% that have travelled under 2 miles to get to Durham, so this could mean that students live within 2 miles of Durham as the housing in the CBD are cheaper than the housing at the outskirts of Durham. 6% visit Durham as they work there, which means that the city provides employment as well as services and facilities.

        The results for how people travelled to Durham show that 56% travel on the bus to get to Durham which could mean that the transport system in and around Durham are efficient and therefore the majority of the people I asked said that they travelled by bus. Also 36% said that they got to Durham by a car which could also suggest good transport systems. A minority of 6% said that they travelled by train, bike or by walking.

        The results of whether people thought transport systems in Durham were efficient or not were that 98% said it was, and only 2% said it wasn’t which explains and links to question 4 as all together 96% of the people travelled by a vehicle on the road which means that Durham really does have efficient transport systems. The results for the retail outlets being adequate for everybody’s needs were that 100% said yes, it was adequate for their needs, which links to question 3 as 88% said that their purpose for visiting Durham was to shop therefore this suggests that a lot of people come shopping because the shops are adequate for their needs.

        The results for questions 7 were that 88% said they are going to use clothing shops which again links in with question 3 as 88% said that their purpose of visiting Durham was shopping, so there is a clear link to 3 with question 7. 26% said that they were going to use the bank; this might be to get money out so this could mean that people are happy to spend money on the services that Durham provides or the leisure and other facilities like on tourist attractions in Durham. 4% said that they would be visiting furniture shops which suggests that people think Durham is adequate for buying furniture, which means that Durham offers a range of furniture and choice as they could have also visited larger cities like Newcastle, presuming that bigger cities have better quality of goods, therefore this must mean that Durham is as good as Newcastle or offers the same or better quality goods.

        The results for the last question in my questionnaire (question 8) generally show what people think of Durham’s services and facilities. Transport facilities seem to be rated the best out of variety of shops, quality of goods in shops, leisure facilities, general environment and entertainment, as 52% said the transport facilities were excellent. This also links into question 4 as 56% said that they travelled by bus which must mean that nearly everybody that travelled by bus are satisfied with the service and think it is capable of carrying on this way. 66% thought that the variety of shops and the quality of goods in shops were in between good and excellent and gave it a score of 4, this is also a high score which means that people think Durham is more than a good place to come and do their shopping as is the quality is nearly excellent and there are a variety of shops to visit. However the leisure facilities and entertainment did not prove to be as popular as the shops as 4% thought they were poor and gave it a score of 1, which could link into question 3 if you compare the percentage of 88% whose purpose to come to Durham was shopping to the 28% whose purpose was for leisure as it is considerably low, this could be because people think they are not very good so rated it as poor.

        Throughout my questionnaires some people commented on what they think about Durham (shown on page 19), for example “Transport systems are excellent and very efficient”, this supports question 5 as 98% said they thought it was efficient and question 8 as 52% gave it a score of 5 which is excellent, therefore this must mean that transport systems are excellent and many like to travel to Durham because of the good quality transport systems. Another comment which supports my questionnaire and hypothesis is “Durham has lots of attractions”, attractions are in Durham so the general environment could reflect how good people think the attractions are. On question 8 the general environment was mostly scored 4 as 54% thought is was nearly excellent therefore the attractions must also be nearly excellent so people are attracted to Durham because of the attractions which proved part of my hypothesis correct.  

        The annotated photos show how

Evaluation.

In my evaluation I am going to talk about the reliability of methods, accuracy of results and validity of conclusion. This will show me whether I proved my hypothesis right or wrong.

        The methods used to record were the street map which gave an birds eye view of Durham and how Durham was structured for example the names of streets/roads or how the land was used, questionnaires which gave different views of what people thought of Durham which I then summarised and presented to give an overall view of each question, quality index which illustrated the quality of the services and facilities of Durham, annotated photos which gave an insight of the types of buildings in Durham and its services and facilities and finally the pedestrian and vehicle survey which showed how congested or not Durham is. My street map could have been improved upon by getting a closer zoom of it as all the roads in Durham were not labelled on the map but only the major roads were, so if I were to change it I would zoom in and get a more detailed map because it would mean it is a more reliable map. My questionnaire could have been improved if I put another question in asking where they came from because this would have made my presentation stronger as I could have done a desire line map to show exactly how many people came to Durham and how far they travelled. Also I would not have put question 8 which asked to rate certain things because this was just like the quality index I did. In addition to that I would get more questionnaires done because 50 is not enough to say that the result to all of my questions are reliable. My quality index could have been improved if I put in a question related to the attractions in Durham so that it could link clearly to my hypothesis and also prove it right or wrong, so if I were to do my quality index again I would ask them to rate the attractions in Durham. Also I should have given them a wider range of number to circle for example, 1 = poor, 5 = good, 10 = excellent rather than 1 = poor, 3 = good, 5 = excellent, because it would have given me accurate results. My annotated photos could have been improved if I labelled minor things such as drains and pedestrian pathways because it would have shown that Durham is an organised and tidy place and that’s why people are attracted to it. My pedestrian and vehicle survey could have been improved if I counted for a longer length of time rather than just 1 minute as a more concentration of cars/people could have passed after or before and so gave me inaccurate results, so I were to re-do my surveys I would count for a longer length of time.

        The accuracy of my results shows a discrepancy in each of the methods of recording. My street map is reasonably accurate as it is from ‘Google earth/maps’ which has been recently updated therefore the map should not cause too much concern when dealing with the accuracy of my results. However the questionnaire may not be as accurate as I thought it was going to be and there are various reasons. Firstly, it was a snapshot/sample of 50 questionnaires which aren’t enough to produce accurate and reliable results so if I asked more people for example 100+ I would have got different results as the proportion of people I will have asked would be bigger so would have been accurate. Secondly, if I asked people to complete the questionnaires at a different time of the day I may have got different results, this could have been because I may have asked different aged people or they may have been in a good/bad mood and other factors such as the weather because if I did this at a different time of the year more/less people might have stopped to complete the questionnaire.    

Bibliography

  • http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?hl=en&tab=wl
  • http://www.durhamtourism.co.uk
  • Heinemann AQA Understanding Geography
  • Heinemann AQA Coursework Skills Companion

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