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Case Studies - Population, Settlement, Industry and Environment

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Introduction

´╗┐Theme 1 Population Botswana, South Africa-Causes and Impact of HIV/AIDS on population growth * Botswana has a high dependency ratio, with a youthful population, and a shortage of workers due to the high number of people who have HIV/AIDS, lowering the growth rate of the population. * One in four Botswanans aged 15-49 have HIV/AIDS, and the death rate for those with it is 28.6, which is 6 times higher than the population without, which is 4.8. Life expectancy with HIV/AIDS was 33.9 years, but 72 without. Causes * Lack of education about the disease and how to avoid it with contraception until recently * Only 18% of Botswanans are married, with many having multiple partners, increasing the risk * Poverty leads to some women becoming prostitutes to get money, increasing the risk of it spreading * Botswana lacked enough medical care to copy with the number of people requiring treating Impacts * Economic-People who are ill with the disease cannot work, and are not contributing to the economy * Social-HIV/AIDS weakens the immune system, leading to many people being killed each year. 13% of orphans receive no help whatsoever * Demographic-HIV/AIDS travels from mother to baby, increasing Infant Mortality Rate, reducing the population. Management * Antiretroviral drugs given to pregnant women from 2002, stopping the virus travelling from mother to baby * Routine testing for the disease so people will know whether or not they have been infected, so they can be treated, and avoid passing it on to others * Awareness campaigns to promote effectiveness of treatment and to make people more aware of the disease * Condoms provided by the government to reduce the chance of the virus spreading from one person to another during sex. Botswana, South Africa-Reasons for high and low population densities Reasons for areas with Low Population Density * Areas with Low population Density include: Kalahari Desert, The Okavango Delta, Chobe District, and Makgadikgadi Pans Type Area/Reason Explanation Physical Kalahari Most of Botswana is a semi-desert, ...read more.

Middle

Impacts: * Social-There were 26 confirmed deaths, with 28 presumed dead and over 200,000 people affected, due to homelessness, lack of clean water, electricity, or food. 30000 homes without electricity in Brisbane, and 80% of emerald was flooded. Crocodiles and Snakes got into homes. * Economic-Goonfella railway closed for a week, which led to 75% of operations stopped at the state's coalfields. There was a total cost of $30 billion * Environmental-Over 20 towns were cut off and flooded, and the peak discharge of the Fitzroy river was 9m above normal flow. Since the floodplains were mainly urban areas, animals moved into the towns, which was dangerous for both the animals and the people, since the animals were dangerous ones sucha s crocodiles and snakes. Responses: * Evacuation plans-80 Australian military personnel were engaged in flood relief activities, with emergency shelter provided at Central Queensland University in Emerald. Meteorologists were aware of the dangers of flooding, residents were told to evacuate before the floods hit. * Food supply programme-Rockhampton ran out of food, and required imports, and Dolby required 112000 litres of clean water. These supplies were brought in to reduce danger. * Expensive flood protection-The airport terminal was protected by a large metal flood barrier, while 5 flood gates were opened at the Wivenhoe Dam to prevent further flooding. * Political figures focused on flood-Prime Minister Julia Gillard toured the flood affected areas to help support communities affected River Nene, East England-Flood risk management * Flood walls have been built: Flood walls are built as a physical barrier , meaning that more water is required for it to flood. In Footmeadow, flood walls that are 4m high have been built. * Embankments and a washland create: These mean that there is a large area allowing the river to flood. In Upton, £8 million was spent on creating embankments and washlands * Warning systems improved: Warning systems give peopel a chance to evacuate to avoid damage being done to people. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The Newland farmers need the water to continue making a living for themselves as farmers in this area, since less water means fewer crops, and less money * The Reno Sparks Urban Community is similar to Las Vegas, and gets a lot of money from tourism. It has a 2% economic growth each year, but it does need the water to continue this way. Conflict between countries: * Many farmers in Mexico are subsistence, and so they need the water to grow crops to eat. The water that enters Mexico is generally saline, meaning it is not safe to drink or use. * Mexico requires the water for agriculture, but not enough water makes it to Mexico, The water that does make it there is saline, and must be desalinised, which is very expensive. * The reduced flow of water at the mouth means there is a loss of habitat for the egret bird and totoaba fish. * The US has done multiple things to make issues worse, by lining the All American canal, stopping water from leaking out to Mexican aquifers, and it also closed a desalinisation plant at Yuma on the Mexican border, meaning that the water that enters is extremely salty. Conflict between agriculture in Yuma Valley, Arizona and economic use in Las Vegas, Nevada * By building dams and reservoirs water can be supplied to farmland * 90% of the USAs fresh fruit and veg in. Large amounts of lettuce, broccoli, and cauliflower. Water is provided from the Colorado river, via a series of canals that are over 300km in length. A water card needs to be filled out, and the water is then supplied. * Drip irrigation is used, as it supplies water straight to the plant's roots. Drip irrigation * Las Vegas uses the water from Cibola Lake for economic and leisure purposes. * Conflict has occurred because selling for domestic uses is 4-5 times more valuable than selling to farmers, so the water that the farmers need is sold to Las Vegas ...read more.

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