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CASE STUDY OF A VOLCANIC ERUPTION: Mount St. Helens, U.S.A. * The Juan de Fuca Plate (oceanic crust) moved eastwards towards the North American Plate (continental crust), and it was forced downwards. This movement created friction which produced earthquakes and, due to an in increase in temperature, it destroyed the oceanic crust. * As, by 1980, it had been inactive for over 120 years, most people living near to it did not accept that one day it might erupt again. * Mount St. Helens itself has been reduced by 390m to 2560m and a crater (more like an amphitheatre in appearance) 3km long and 0.5 km deep had been created on the north-facing slope. * Sixty-one deaths were reported, most of them caused by the release of poisonous gases which accompanied the blast waves. * Several logging camps were destroyed - luckily, as it was a Sunday, no one was working or living there. * Ash which fell into rivers and lakes raised the water temperature, while sediment and mud also choked channels. ...read more.


This raced downhill to fill in Spirit Lake and then, reinforced by the water displaced from this lake, moved rapidly down the northern fork of the Toutle Valley. The mudflow reached Baker Camp, but floodwater continued down the valley and sediment blocked the port of Portland On the Columbia River. At 08:30, the exposed magma exploded sideways sending out blast waves of volcanic gas, steam and dust (called a nu´┐Że ardente) which moved northwards for 25km. Within this range, every form of life - plant and animal - was destroyed. In the rest of morning, a series of eruptions ejected gas, ash and volcanic 'bombs' (rocks). The thicker ash rose 20km and drifted eastwards before settling. Inhabitants at Yakima, 120km away, could only go out if they wore facemasks. Three days later, the volcanic 'plume' (cloud) of fire ash reached the east coast of the USA. Several days later, the ash had completely, encircled the world.) CASE STUDY OF AN EARTHQUAKE TREMOR: Kobe, Japan. * Kobe is a on a minor fault, the Nojima Fault, which lies above a destructive plate margin. ...read more.


However, the newly opened Kansai International Airport and Akashi Bridge were presumably due to their high-tech at withstanding earthquakes. * Kobe's infrastructure, including water, electricity, services, was fully operational by July * The area worst affected by fire had been cleared nibble but little rebuilding had taken place. Most commercial buildings in central areas had been repaired. * All rail services were back to normal by August. One year later the port of Kobe was 80 per cent functional but the Hanshin Expressway remained closed. * Replacement buildings had to meet stronger earthquake-resistance standards. High-rise buildings had to have flexible steel frames, smaller buildings had to have concrete frames with reinforcing bars to absorb shockwaves, houses were not to be built just from brick (which shakes loose) or wood (which burns too easily) but with fire-resistant materials. New buildings had to be built on solid rock, not clay, as water rises to ground-level during an earthquake, causing clay to 'liquefy' into mud. This results in the collapse of buildings. * There was an increase in the number of seismic instruments to record earth movements in the region. 12th December, 2005. Daniel Zahra ...read more.

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