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Do cave sizes change from west to east in Pegwell Bay?

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Introduction

5th form GCSE Geography Coursework Do cave sizes change from west to east in Pegwell Bay? A project to investigate rates of erosion in the chalk cliffs of Pegwell Bay, East Kent. Introduction About 20 well-formed caves show that active wave erosion is taking place along this coastline between the old seaweed tunnel and the sea-wall in Pegwell Cove. The cliff is about 15 metres high in the west (tunnel end) rising to 20 metres in the east (Pegwell Cove) Cliffs are made of well-jointed Chalk with few flints, but many faultlines. Faults, once exposed, form distinct lines of weakness, which are easily exploited in hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition and corrosion to form caves. The cliff face retreats at about 25cm per year, but in the more exposed eastern end, erosion is faster than this. In this western end (towards the old hoverport) erosion is slower. The main rock in Pegwell bay is chalk, overlain by the later Thanet Formation. There is an age gap between the two layers of rock, which took place some 60-80 millions years ago, as earth movements raised the chalk out of the sea. Later, the sea rose again, and the Thanet beds were laid down on the eroded chalk surface. When chalk is weakened by faults, wave erosion has resulted in the formation of caves in the cliffs. Another feature, which can be seen in the cliffs, is brickearth. ...read more.

Middle

I had a biased result. Biased result is to find out which set of data is mostly appear in the table as the biggest number. For example, if all the caves are very deep than caves are biased to the depth. I did a biased test with the data I collected from the caves, it came out with we biased on the depth. Results Here is the primary data: Primary data is the data we measured ourselves. Measurement of caves in Pegwell Bay (July 2006) Cave number Depth (m) Width (m) Height(m) Volume(m3) (west) 1 2 3 4 2.2 1 0.65 1.43 5 2.1 2.5 2.8 14.7 6 1.6 0.26 1.9 0.79 7 2.3 1 0.95 2.185 8 (east) 9 Here is the graph to show the caves size from west to east: Here is the secondary data for 1993: Secondary data is the data that I get it from the internet. Cave number Depth (m) Width (m) Height (m) Shape(w:h ratio) Volume (m3) (west) 1 2 2.4 3.1 0.77 14.88 2 3.4 2.5 3.8 0.66 32.3 3 1.7 2.2 2.6 0.85 9.724 4 2.8 2.9 3.8 0.76 30.856 5 3.3 1.4 4 0.35 18.48 6 7 4.2 4 1.05 117.6 7 1.7 6.7 5.5 1.22 62.645 8 5.4 3.2 4 0.8 69.12 9 8.1 4.4 5 0.88 178.2 10 8.6 4.2 3.5 1.2 126.42 11 9.6 3.1 6 0.52 178.56 12 3.4 2.8 3.8 0.74 36.176 13 2 2 3.5 0.57 14 14 6.9 3.3 3.8 0.87 86.526 ...read more.

Conclusion

In 1993 the average volume is 71.91m3 (only the first 13 caves). In 2005 the average volume is 163.54 m3. Which means the cave sizes had increase from 1993 to 2005 but it is not very accurate because in 2005 there are only 13 caves measured. Caves are formed in evolutionary stages as the diagram shown below: Conclusion I investigated two hypotheses (1) Cave size increases from the west to east, and (2) Caves have increased in size over the period 1993 to 2005. I will accept the first hypothesis because the sizes of cave increase from the west to the east. The result shows that as the caves go from the west to the east, the sizes increase but some caves are out of the ordinary. Unfortunately, I will reject the second hypothesis. Although the data shows that the caves in 2005 are generally bigger than 1993, it is not that accurate because in 2005 the data only show 13 caves while in 1993 there are 20. I didn't record the data so I don't which cave is which. For example the volume of the 1st cave in 1993 is 14.88m3 and in 2005 the volume is 8.568m3. Will the caves get smaller? I know the fact that the sizes of the cave will increase due to the time but it is not proven in this result. If I were to re-do this project, I will make sure that the data is fairy accurate and I will measure more caves in my primary data. - 1 - ...read more.

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