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Economic Activity: factors affecting location.

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Introduction

Economic Activity: factors affecting location. Industry (theory) How can industry be classified? Industrial Systems What affects the location of industry? Multinational Companies How can industry be classified? There are four types of industry. These are primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Primary industry involves getting raw materials e.g. mining, farming and fishing. Secondary industry involves manufacturing e.g. making cars and steel. Tertiary industries provide a service e.g. teaching and nursing. Quaternary industry involves research and development industries e.g. IT. Industrial Systems Factories have inputs, processes and outputs. Inputs can be the raw materials need to make something. Inputs can also be labour, buildings, capital and machinery. Processes are the things which go on within the factory. This is usually the manufacturing of goods. It can also be design and research - anything needed to make something. Outputs are the things which leave the factory. This can include the finished product, profit or even waste. What affects the location of industry? There are many factors which affect the location of industry. These include raw materials, labour supply, markets, transport and Government Policy. Multinational Companies MNCs or Multinational companies are large companies which are located in more than one country. Examples include Coca Cola and Nike. Agriculture What is the farming system? How can farms be classified? What is shifting cultivation? What is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)? What is the Green Revolution? ...read more.

Middle

Footloose industries locate in pleasant environments near transport routes and near the markets. An example of a footloose industry would be a hi-tech industry such as computing. Footloose industries have to locate close to research centres like universities. Development in the hi-tech industry happen so fast that companies need to stay up to date to survive e.g. Science Parks around Cambridge. Footloose industries are usually non-polluting and can locate close to residential areas. What is the Hi-Tech Industry? A High technology (Hi-tech) industry is one that produces sophisticated products. There is a significant emphasis on research and development. Often the 'raw materials' are electrical components. Examples of Hi-tech industries include: * Computers * Telecommunications * Aerospace and military equipment Science Parks Science Parks are located on the edge of cities in greenfield locations. Many of the firms located in science parks are connected with information, high-technology, and electronic industries. Science parks have direct links with universities for research. They have attractive layouts with grassy areas, ornamental gardens, ponds etc. An example is The Cambridge Science Park. The Cambridge Science Park The Cambridge Science Park is on the edge of Cambridge, alongside the M11 and the A10. It is located here because it is very accessible, land values are lower on the edge of an urban area and there is plenty of open space for expansion. A number of companies have links with research departments at Cambridge University. ...read more.

Conclusion

At the top is the CBD (central business district - town/city centre). There is usually only one CBD in a town or city. The CBD contains shops which sell comparison goods (shops containing goods which you will compare the prices of - due to their expense!), luxury and specialist shops. What is today's British shopping hierarchy? The CBD is no longer at the top of the shopping hierarchy It has been superseded by regional shopping centres (e.g. Meadowhall, The Metro Centre and Merryhill). Due to increased mobility (the result of increased car ownership) people can travel further to shops, visit shops with a wider range and volume of stock and buy in bulk. There have also been other, less obvious, changes in the settlement hierarchy For example the number of corner shops have reduced. This is the result of greater mobility, the limited and often expensive range of goods available and due to more people being paid monthly they buy in bulk from supermarkets. In some areas CBDs have declined due to competition with regional shopping centres. Dudley is an examples of this. The construction of the Merryhill Shopping Centre has caused huge problems in Dudley the local CBD. Many shops have closed or moved to the shopping centre Factors effecting the location of industry Flat land with good stable soil Good power supply e.g. near power station A market near by where the goods can be sold Government policies (grants and incentives) Technology available in the area Local facilities Transport links Labour (workers living near by) Raw materials Natural route for transport ...read more.

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