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GCSE Geography Coursework: Strand 4 - Interpertation of Data

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

This is the Data Interpretation section of the coursework folder for the geographical investigation conducted on the River Calder around Garstang; based on the following hypothesis - 'Does the River Calder fit the Bradshaw Model.' The Bradshaw model is in figure 1. These are the locations which were investigated: * #1- approximately 4km from source. Grid reference 548 487. * #2- approximately 5.2km from source. On Grid reference 539 482. * #3 - On Calder Vale; approximately 8.3km from source. Grid Reference 533 482. * #4 - Sandholme Mill; approximately 11.4km from source, grid reference 517 434. * #5- Catterall playing fields; approximately 14.3km form source, grid reference 494 433. These are the factors which were measured and are going to be explained: * Channel Width * Channel Depth * Water velocity * Discharge * Gradient * Average bed-load size * Bed load roundness. Analysis of each factor in-respect to the River Calder's attributes: (1) Channel Width: According to the Bradshaw Model, the channel width is expected to increase moving downstream from the source. Site Width in meters Site 1 6.1 Site 2 2.7 Site 3 5.8 Site 4 5.9 Site 5 6.7 There is an abnormal decrease of 3.4m in the channel width between sites 2 and 3; approximately 7KM from source. This anomaly is due to the abstraction of water from the Calder Intake to the Barnacre and Grizedale Lea reservoirs, grid-reference 5448. A reduce in water will make the channel width narrower. This is because less (lateral) ...read more.

Middle

The river slows down to adjust to this attribute. There is however an alternative possibility. At site 4 we measured inside the inner-bend of the meander; which flows faster than the outer-bend. (4) Gradient: According to the Bradshaw model the river's gradient is expected to decrease moving downstream from the source. Site Gradient (degrees) Site 1 3.2 Site 2 2.3 Site 3 1.8 Site 4 1 Site 5 0.7 The gradient decreases chronologically as one goes downstream from source - from 3.2o to 0.7o; which fits the Bradshaw Model. The gradient of the river decreases because it is reaching flat, smooth, laminar land which does not contain boulders, which the upper-course has. Gradient also directly helps to increase the velocity. This is because an increase in steepness allows a faster flow of water, thence faster turbulent erosion, which breaks boulders by Hydraulic action. (5) Discharge: According to the Bradshaw Model, the Discharge will increase heavily moving downstream from source. In the Discharge formula, the Cross-sectional Area and the velocity are products; thus as the cross-sectional area or the velocity decrease, so will the Discharge. Site Discharge (cumecs) Site 1 0.811 Site 2 0.009 Site 3 0.086 Site 4 0.267 Site 5 0.394 There is a significant decrease of 0.802 cumecs in the discharge between sites 1 and 2. This decrease is influenced by the decrease in the cross-sectional area and the velocity. ...read more.

Conclusion

This meant that the angular rocks were moved by traction and, because of the heavy gush of the water, were eroded by hydraulic-action; this process is responsible for decreasing the angular rocks between sites 1 and 2 from 55% to 48%. The erosion between these two sites is slow because water has been abstracted to the Barnacre and Grizedale Lea reservoirs. From Sites 2 to 3, the bed-load roundness changes significantly, this is due to surplus water being re-added to the River Calder. The amount of angular rocks can now decrease because they have already been broadened by Hyraulic-action; they can now smooth by rubbing against the river-bed (abrasion). Between Sites 3 to 4, there is a significant increase in the number of rounded rocks. This is because the River Calder's 34 tributaries are adding water. Using this water and the moderate velocity (0.24m/sec), the river can make the sub-angular, middle sized particles, move by Saltation which will make them rounder. This is why the percentage of rounded rocks has increased by 32. However this sight was ambiguous since it was subjective to differentiate between the different types of rocks. Between Sites 4 to 5, River Calder and River Wyre confluence, adding on huge amounts of additional water. The surface-area in Site 5 is 2.073m2 this means that land will be bigger and smoother; thus there will be less friction. In spite of this, there were still, according to my peers, angular rocks. ?? ?? ?? ?? Riyadh Abdulla Data Interpretation Instructor: Mr Walker 1 GCSE Geography Spec.B Candidate Number:- 4185 ...read more.

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