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# Geo introduction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction I have chosen the topic of "how do river characteristics change with distance down stream". One of the reasons I have chosen this subject is because the area of Fermanagh is dominated with lakes all fed by rivers, the rivers have a very big effect on the geographical features and the shape of the landscape. Spatial content River Largoness is a small river situated in Florence court, 12 miles from Enniskillen in Co. Fermanagh. The majority of its water is ground run off from the north east face of Cuilcagh Mountain. Hypothesis The main aim of my project is to study and prove or disprove my hypothesis; * Discharge will change with distance down stream * Bed load size will change with distance down stream * Gradient will decrease with distance down stream * Velocity will increase with distance down stream Expected out comes * We expect the discharge to increase with the distance down stream as on down the river there will be more and more tributaries and surface infiltration being added to the river as you go down stream there for we would expect the discharge to there fore increase. ...read more.

Middle

e.g. 5+3/2= 4 Velocity Again we took 3 measurements for velocity so we need to find an average. Add all the values and divide them by 3. to calculate velocity we used the formula V=D/T e.g. 10+13+14/3=12.333 Bed Load By using the measurement of the long axis of 10 rock adding them together and dividing them by 10 we get the mean size. e.g. (10 rock)/10 = average Health and Safety * A parental consent is required for all activities taking place outside school. * An emergency contact number is required encase of an accident ect on the trip. * We must apply for an activity permit from the forestry service; this means that if there as an accident on their land they take no responsibility. * 1st aid kits to help treat small injuries. * Suitable clothing must be warned to reduce the risk of injury e.g. school uniforms not suitable for climbing over gates and paddling around rivers. Procedure (methodology) * Gradient - To measure gradient we got two ranging poles placed one a good distance downstream from the other. ...read more.

Conclusion

to give a straight line and to you know what distance to take the next measurement, use the width and divide it by 10 as you will take 10 depth readings across the river. Use your 1m rule every width divided by 10 and stick it straight in to the water (0cm end to the river bed), now the position at which the water sits on the ruler is your depth. * Velocity - Place one ranging pole up stream of another at a uniform distance, ensure that there are no obstacles in the way as you will be releasing a float and timing the time it takes to reach the other pole. Have a stop watch ready release the float from the ranging pole up stream and at the same time start the stop watch. When the float reaches the bottom pole stop it. Now take the time and divide it by the distance in metres between the poles, this will give you the velocity in M per second. * Discharge - Width x Depth x velocity we used a programme 'Channel analysis' to work this out, it considered all the factors and gave a very accurate result. ...read more.

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