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Geographical Applied Understanding for River's Fieldwork

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Introduction

This geographical enquiry will test a hypothesis based on a study of The River Calder. The river is located in the Bleasdale Moor Area, NW of England in the county of Lancashire. We will test to find out if the following hypothesis is true, 'Does the River Calder fit the Bradshaw Model.' The Bradshaw model is in figure 1. Map evidence to find the location of this geographical investigation is on the Ordnance Survey named "Explorer Map," on map 'OL41' named 'Forest of Bowland and Ribblesdale.' River Calder's background information: The River Calder is approximately 15km; its source is located on grid reference 58485, on the Eastern side of Luddock's Fell. The river continues NW reaching towards Bleasdale Moors. From 'Quarry', the River Calder begins to meander SW passing through 'Oakenclough' on grid reference 5547 passing Calder Vale further south. SW from this, the River Calder passes 'Sandholme Mill', intersecting with the M6 motorway around grid-reference 52435. From this point, the river heads to town Catterall, a town, where it meets the River Wyre, a tributary of the River Calder. From the map, it is evident that the two Rivers confluence at approximately 300 meters east of the A6 Catterall playing fields. There are two schematic reservoirs used on the River Calder - Grizedale Lea Reservoir and the Barnacre Reservoir. They are both located at about grid-reference 5448. ...read more.

Middle

However this is not demonstrated in the Data Presentation part of the Coursework. Reasons as to why this might have occurred will be explained in greater detail in the Data Interpretation. The upper course is a narrow, large angular channel bed-load. Initially, anyone would have thought that the velocity of the water would be expected to decrease going downstream as the river bed becomes wider. This is not the case, even though the gradient is at its steepest in the upper course, the water, going down, is faced by a ridged wetted perimeter, which acts as an obstacle - making the water's movement slower. The only exception where the speed of the upper course's water movement is faster than the lower course's is when a large storm happens; this is because of the hefty of gush of water. Hence, this hefty gush of water will lead to a higher velocities and the steepness of the gradient (4), will lead to a greater influence of gravity. With this, Hydraulic action will occur, easily surpassing obstacles which it meets. A river cannot normally do this because its speed slows down as it meets the ridged wetted perimeter. The lower course, on the other hand, has a higher velocity because the river's bed is smooth, thus there is little to no friction as opposed to the extreme friction created by the wetted perimeter in the upper course. ...read more.

Conclusion

Bed-load roundness According to the Bradshaw Model, the bed load roundness is expected to increase going downstream. Therefore we expect site 1 to have a higher percentage of angular rocks as opposed to site 5 which will in contrast have a higher percentage of rounded rocks. This is clearly the case in our results, and is demonstrated in a graph which can be found in the Data Presentation part of the coursework folder. At the upper course, we expect to see rocks which are angular because those rocks are new, large, ridged boulders which did not undergo any erosion processes which did not come in contact with the river's bed surface in the lower course. These rocks become more rounded as they are transported from the upper course to the lower course. This happens by the force of water that is summoned during the storm resulting in Hydraulic action; which breaks parts of the boulders into rocks. These rocks, as they are transported, undergo erosion, mainly abrasion, where they rub their materials on the river's bed, making them smoother as they simultaneously transport to the lower course. From the Middle to the Lower course, rocks tend to move by Saltation. Saltation is the movement of middle-sized particles. These particles tend to move by rolling along the river bed; making them more rounded and smooth. ?? ?? ?? ?? Riyadh Abdulla Applied Understanding Instructor: Mr Walker Candidate Number : 4185 Page 1 GCSE Geography Spec. B ...read more.

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