• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Geographical Applied Understanding for River's Fieldwork

Extracts from this document...


This geographical enquiry will test a hypothesis based on a study of The River Calder. The river is located in the Bleasdale Moor Area, NW of England in the county of Lancashire. We will test to find out if the following hypothesis is true, 'Does the River Calder fit the Bradshaw Model.' The Bradshaw model is in figure 1. Map evidence to find the location of this geographical investigation is on the Ordnance Survey named "Explorer Map," on map 'OL41' named 'Forest of Bowland and Ribblesdale.' River Calder's background information: The River Calder is approximately 15km; its source is located on grid reference 58485, on the Eastern side of Luddock's Fell. The river continues NW reaching towards Bleasdale Moors. From 'Quarry', the River Calder begins to meander SW passing through 'Oakenclough' on grid reference 5547 passing Calder Vale further south. SW from this, the River Calder passes 'Sandholme Mill', intersecting with the M6 motorway around grid-reference 52435. From this point, the river heads to town Catterall, a town, where it meets the River Wyre, a tributary of the River Calder. From the map, it is evident that the two Rivers confluence at approximately 300 meters east of the A6 Catterall playing fields. There are two schematic reservoirs used on the River Calder - Grizedale Lea Reservoir and the Barnacre Reservoir. They are both located at about grid-reference 5448. ...read more.


However this is not demonstrated in the Data Presentation part of the Coursework. Reasons as to why this might have occurred will be explained in greater detail in the Data Interpretation. The upper course is a narrow, large angular channel bed-load. Initially, anyone would have thought that the velocity of the water would be expected to decrease going downstream as the river bed becomes wider. This is not the case, even though the gradient is at its steepest in the upper course, the water, going down, is faced by a ridged wetted perimeter, which acts as an obstacle - making the water's movement slower. The only exception where the speed of the upper course's water movement is faster than the lower course's is when a large storm happens; this is because of the hefty of gush of water. Hence, this hefty gush of water will lead to a higher velocities and the steepness of the gradient (4), will lead to a greater influence of gravity. With this, Hydraulic action will occur, easily surpassing obstacles which it meets. A river cannot normally do this because its speed slows down as it meets the ridged wetted perimeter. The lower course, on the other hand, has a higher velocity because the river's bed is smooth, thus there is little to no friction as opposed to the extreme friction created by the wetted perimeter in the upper course. ...read more.


Bed-load roundness According to the Bradshaw Model, the bed load roundness is expected to increase going downstream. Therefore we expect site 1 to have a higher percentage of angular rocks as opposed to site 5 which will in contrast have a higher percentage of rounded rocks. This is clearly the case in our results, and is demonstrated in a graph which can be found in the Data Presentation part of the coursework folder. At the upper course, we expect to see rocks which are angular because those rocks are new, large, ridged boulders which did not undergo any erosion processes which did not come in contact with the river's bed surface in the lower course. These rocks become more rounded as they are transported from the upper course to the lower course. This happens by the force of water that is summoned during the storm resulting in Hydraulic action; which breaks parts of the boulders into rocks. These rocks, as they are transported, undergo erosion, mainly abrasion, where they rub their materials on the river's bed, making them smoother as they simultaneously transport to the lower course. From the Middle to the Lower course, rocks tend to move by Saltation. Saltation is the movement of middle-sized particles. These particles tend to move by rolling along the river bed; making them more rounded and smooth. ?? ?? ?? ?? Riyadh Abdulla Applied Understanding Instructor: Mr Walker Candidate Number : 4185 Page 1 GCSE Geography Spec. B ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Physical Geography essays

  1. rivers coursework

    got at site 3 is an anomalous result because of the fact that there is too much a difference in gradient compared to the other sites. Therefore I still maintain my hypothesis and my explanation is thus as follows. Rain from precipitation collects at the source upland, flowing down steep valley sides.

  2. Geographical Enquiry - Methodology

    depth can be used to draw work out and draw a surface-area graph, which is in the Discharge formula. Examples of these graphs are located in the Data Presentation part of the coursework folder. 3 - Water Velocity: According to the Bradshaw Model, the velocity of the water is expected to increase moving downstream.

  1. Cliff erosion in East Sussex - the processes, problems and solutions.

    Furthermore, the South Downs in an ANOB (an area of outstanding natural beauty) and also a registered National Park. This would make this task highly difficult to accomplish. Many would argue that a major road through the South Downs will cause environmental concerns, increase the risk of further developments on

  2. Geography river study coursework - Why do channel characteristics vary downstream at a number ...

    3 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 6 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 7 3 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 8 6 6 5 4 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 Analysis and Conclusion Are my hypotheses correct?

  1. The research I have carried out to test if the statement Stretches of a ...

    Equipment we used: we used a plastic ball in order to measure how long it took to get to a certain distance over the river we used a stopwatch to measure how long it took the ball to get to a certain distance on the river we used a metre

  2. Morpeth Coursework

    I chose this site because it was in a council estate. It would be interesting to compare houses in this type of area and houses in the outer suburbs. 5) Carlisle Park Carlisle Park was the fifth site we surveyed; which is situated in Park according to the Burgess Model.

  1. An Investigation Into Kingston Area Shopping Centres and Their Patterns of Use

    to the various shops and products available to customers, more shoppers would be willing to travel from further distances and therefore there are more public transport routes. Now that I have shown that my hypotheses show a positive correlation, I will now conduct a statistical test with my hypotheses.

  2. Field investigation around the hypothesis: The River Piddles bed load will become smaller and ...

    The Hjulstrom curve (Fig 1.2) also illustrates this, as it shows whether a river will erode, transport or deposit sediment, depending on the sediment size and the river velocity. This will be very useful for my investigation as it shows a correlation between velocity and sediment size, which is one of my key aims to discover.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work