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Geographical Enquiry - Methodology

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This is my Methodology for the geographical investigation on the River Calder which is explained, along with theory, in the Applied Understanding section of the coursework folder. This geographical investigation has been conducted around Garstang and is based on the following hypothesis - 'Does the River Calder fit the Bradshaw Model.' The Bradshaw model is in figure 1. This Methodology has taken place on June the 10th 2008. We travelled from Beardwood High School, Blackburn, to near Garstang. A Map the Ordnance Survey named "Explorer Map," on map 'OL41' named 'Forest of Bowland and Ribblesdale.' These are the locations which were investigated: * Location #1- approximately 4km from source. Grid reference 548 487. * Location #2- approximately 5.2km from source. On Grid reference 539 482. * Location #3 - On Calder Vale: approximately 8.3km from source. Grid Reference 533 482. * Location #4 - Sandholme Mill: approximately 11.4km from source, grid reference 517 434. * Location #5- Catterall playing fields: approximately 14.3km form source, grid reference 494 433. These are the factors which we have measured and investigated: * Channel Width * Channel Depth * Water velocity * Discharge * Gradient * Average bed-load size * Bed load roundness. ...read more.


Distance was kept the same during the substitution. We thought an orange peel will be an effective objective to use because of its lightweight which will allow it to easily flow, and its bright colour, which will make it easily distinguishable. The 'shouters' are the people in our group which will help the person with the stop-watch to accurately time the 'orange peel' as it travels from one ranging pole to the other. Our method was straightforward, we had one person who aligned the orange peel in the same line as the orange peel, and once the timer was ready, the person who held the orange peel would allow it to flow; the timer was informed of this by a person from our group, preferably the person who held the orange peel. Once the orange peel is placed in the water, the person on the left pole shouts "start!" and, likewise, when the orange peel reaches the opposite ranging pole, the timer is prompted to stop by a "stop!" This process was repeated five times in order to obtain an accurate average. 4 - Gradient According to the Bradshaw model the river's gradient is expected to slightly decrease going downstream. ...read more.


People in my group, including myself, started to note the roundness of the pebbles whilst trying to fit their roundness in the most appropriate category shown in Power's Roundness Chart (Figure 6). This proved very subjective and it was hard to come up with a decision which most of us agreed on since it was very ambiguous to differentiate between, say, a Sub-angular and a Sub-rounded rock. Because we were running out of time, it was decided to simplify Power's Roundness chart into 3 categories, thus to make it easier to agree on a final decision, the three simplified categories are: angular; sub-angular and rounded. After doing this, we were able to agree about a rock's roundness more fluently, although it was still subjective. After an agreement we would tallied the result in a table according to roundness and site location. Global results have proven very subjective with different groups giving a different overall percentage of the rocks' roundness. This was one of the few parts where we had to trust each others' initiatives to give accurate deductions. This data will be interpreted more closely in the Data Interpretation part of the coursework folder. ?? ?? ?? ?? Riyadh Abdulla Methodology Instructor: Mr Walker 1 GCSE Geography Spec. B Candidate Number : - 4185 ...read more.

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