• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24

Geography - Ivestigation of the River Colne, Buckinghamshire

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

25 Pages Introduction Pages 3-6 Hypotheses (at top of page): Page 3 Maps of Location of River: Page 4 3D map of river: Page 6 Methodology: Pages 6-8 Data Presentation: Page 8-19 Raw Data Table: Pages 8-9 Photos: Pages 10-14 Volume of flow: Proportional Line map: Page 15 Width, Depth, Velocity and Volume of Flow Graphs: Pages 16-17 Vegetation and Height Above Sea Level Graphs/Charts: Page 18 Differences in Height Above Sea Level Graph: Page 19 Data Analysis: Page 19-22 Hypothesis 1: Pages 19-20 Hypothesis 2: Pages 20-21 Hypothesis 3: Pages 21-22 Conclusion: Page 22 Evaluation: Pages 22-25 Final Conclusion: Page 25 Bibliography: Page 25 I formulated my hypotheses based on my current knowledge: * I expect the river to get wider and deeper as it flows downstream because it will be joined by tributaries, and other water e.g. from rainfall, so the volume of water in the river will increase, therefore the width and depth of the river must increase to accommodate this extra water. The extra water will also entail more hydraulic action, so the banks of the river will be eroded more, and more water also means more sediment. This sediment will also erode the banks more; rocks carried by saltation or traction will erode the bed, making the river deeper, and alluvium in suspension will erode the bank. In the upper course of most rivers, due to the bedload, there is usually more vertical erosion than lateral (as the river tries to reach its base level), so the river is deep, but narrow, with steep banks. In the middle and lower course, there is progressively less vertical erosion and more lateral erosion, so the river should get a lot wider and a bit deeper as it flows downstream. Human intervention could change the shape of the river, and indeed the nature of the water itself, and plants and fishes can build up the riverbed with decaying material, or deepen it by foraging for food or growing roots. ...read more.

Middle

However, sites 1 and 9 were a bit murky, and site 3 very much so, suggesting that there was quite a lot of alluvium and silt suspended in the water, which would gradually erode the banks and make the river wider. Of course, I can't see what's in solution in the river, so I don't know how it will affect the river's width and depth It is also evident in most of my data presentation that the river varies a lot between site 1 and 10, and an average is needed to draw conclusions. This could be because the river's chalk bed affects the river's volume because it is porous and allows water to drain through it, and groundwater to rise and fill the river through it, depending on the position of the water table. It is also easily eroded, so the river's depth may be affected by it as well. Furthermore, flowing through an intensely urban area, the Colne is heavily affected by human activity, which may explain some of my outlying results. In addition, the variable weather at the end of august: alternate showers, downpours and sweltering sun, may well have had adverse effects on my data. Looking at the photos, I can see that the river gets wider and deeper as it flows downstream, because some of my narrowest and shallowest sites are 9 and 10, whereas site 1 is very wide and so deep you can't see the bottom. Looking at photos 1, 3 and 9, we can also see that they are murky, as mentioned above, which means there is sediment in suspension in the water which could affect the river's width and depth at that point. However, this sediment is not continuous: the river is clear at most of my other sites, so the lateral erosion is also not constant. Overall, it is obvious that there is a little increase in values from upstream to downstream of the section of river I studied, but a lot of fluctuations too. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, as previously mentioned, this is still just a snapshot in time, and the river conditions could vary greatly across that week/month/year, even if there was no drought or flood that week. All considered, I think I did just about the best investigation I could in the circumstances, but it could have been greatly improved with a lot more time, money and effort if I was a professional or had a professional need. Conclusion: In conclusion, the river seems so follow hypothesis 1, ("as the river flows downstream, it will get wider and deeper"), but not 2 ("as the river flows downstream, the rate of flow will increase") and 3 ("as the river flows downstream, the gradient of the river will get shallower"). It would be interesting to see whether the same results are found on a different river, or if other rivers support my hypotheses. In this investigation, I aimed to prove or disprove three hypotheses drawn from my background knowledge (refer to page 3). I wanted to investigate how the River Colne changes as it flows downstream. I have certainly completed the latter part: I have gained an insight to the Colne's treacherous nature and attained a general idea of how it changes as it flows downstream: it does not follow the theory I have learnt from my lessons, but its width, depth, velocity and volume of flow vary considerably in a very short stretch of river due to several factors. I have completed the first part of my aim too: I proved or disproved all of my hypotheses. In actual fact, I only proved one of them, but I found out that I would need to take readings over a longer time period and a larger sample to be sure of my conclusions, or to draw completely new conclusions and be sure of those. But really, I should study a different river, as the Colne's urban setting and interaction with the Grand Union Canal makes it a bad place to study. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Physical Geography essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Debden Brook Rivers Cousework Analysis and Conclusion

    4 star(s)

    and 0.35 at site 3 (The River Roding). This is because the increased volume of water entering the river from tributaries will result in increased weight and therefore increased momentum and velocity. This hypothesis corresponds with the Bradshaw model because fig.7 shows the velocity of the river increasing with distance downstream.

  2. Geography river study coursework - Why do channel characteristics vary downstream at a number ...

    Zomba plateau is also easliy accessible for us, being only an hour away from our school in the city of Blantyre. The location of Zomba Town and the Zomba Plateau can be seen on the following maps. Channel characteristic explored Apparatus used method used to collect the data problems Width

  1. Geography Coursework - Data Interpretation

    This tells us about the diversity of types of plant, and the total amount of grass there is. These can both tell us how much people have walked over the ground by showing different amounts of grass etc. In the results, it showed that there was more grass overall, in R.H.G.

  2. Geography Field Study River Investigation Coursework

    * River discharge will affect velocity more than gradient. Velocity will increase downstream. Equipment . Hydroprop- a metal rod with a corkscrew-shaped twisting extension for the impellor (a plastic propellor with three blades) . Meterstick- a meter-long ruler . Stopwatch . Tape Measure . Orange . pH indicator (electronic) .

  1. Swanage Geography Coursework

    If they put this improvement forward swanage will gain more profit. RESIDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE This is one question I chose from the residents Questionnaire which shows which area Residents visit to shop in the surrounding area.

  2. Geographical Enquiry - Methodology

    Some of the method traits used to measure the water's velocity (3) was used to measure the gradient too: the same ranging poles with the same stretch. In order to measure the angle of the gradient's slope, I have used a clinometer gun.

  1. Geographical Applied Understanding for River's Fieldwork

    This was clearly the case and is demonstrated in the Data Presentation part of the coursework folder. The gradient decreases going down to the lower course because it is reaching flat, smooth laminar sea surface; it is a flat, smooth laminar surface because there are no boulders, the rocks are well rounded (7)

  2. Debden Brook Rivers Coursework Data Collection Table

    This could mean that the river was now wider than it usually would have been, because of the extra intake of water it would have had. Depth The depth of the river increases with distance downstream. - Meter stick - Two people To measure the depth we only required two people and a meter stick.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work