• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24

geography settlement

Extracts from this document...


SETTLEMENT TYPES What is a settlement? A settlement is a place where people live. Settlements come in lots of different sizes. A settlement may be as small as a single house in a remote area or as a large as a mega city (a city with over 10 million residents). A settlement may be permanent or temporary. An example of a temporary settlement would be a refugee camp. However, a temporary settlement may become permanent over time. This has happened to many refugee camps that have been built in conflict zones. The reasons why a settlement developed or was built can be thought of as its function. For example, the settlement of Southampton is a port. Settlement shape As well as coming in a variety of sizes, settlements also come in a variety of shapes. * Settlements usually develop in a particular pattern (but not always). * A nucleated settlement is where the buildings are clustered around a central point, e.g. a bridge or market square. * A linear settlement is where the buildings are arranged in a line - usually along a river or road. * A dispersed settlement is where the buildings are spread out or scattered. Dispersed settlements are often found in remote, sparsely-populated areas. Over the past 100 years many new settlements have been planned and developed by the UK government - for example, the town of Harlow in Essex. New towns like this follow distinctive patterns, with their shape often influenced by decisions made by planners. Maps can tell us a lot about the shape of a settlement and also the reasons why a settlement has developed in a certain way. When using a map, look for evidence of natural features such as rivers as well as human features such as historical buildings (e.g. castles or cathedrals). Remember to quote grid references when using map evidence in an exam. ...read more.


This is called urban sprawl. * In the UK, green belts are used to protect areas of countryside from urban sprawl. A green belt is an area of green land around a large city where development is restricted. * Some people are moving out of the city altogether and relocating in rural areas. The movement of people from urban areas to the countryside is called counter-urbanisation. Suburbs of London, UK (left) and of Istanbul, Turkey As well as the movement of people out of urban areas, businesses and services have also moved: * For example, out-of-town shopping centres, such as the Trafford Centre near Manchester, have been built on the edge of the city close to motorway connections. * Retail parks have also developed on the edge of large urban areas. These provide a range of shops and entertainment services (e.g. multi-screen cinemas) in one location. * Business parks and science parks are also a feature of the rural-urban fringe. Areas such as the Cambridge Science Park offer high skilled jobs in a spacious, semi rural setting that is well connected to major road and rail routes. This can be an attractive pull factor for potential employees. Many people are concerned about the impact of relocating shopping and employment to the edge of the city. This trend could lead to greater traffic congestion, pollution from cars and the decline of the CBD. Transport congestion As more people move to the edge of towns and cities, traffic congestion may get worse. This is because many people try to drive their cars each day into the city centre for work. Traffic congestion is made worse by the fact that the roads in the centre of urban areas are old and narrow. People are brought into city on large roads or motorways. These roads then link up with smaller, older, narrower roads in the city centre. This causes bottlenecks and congestion. ...read more.


Squatter settlements tend to be unplanned and are often illegal. Houses are self-built using basic materials. Squatter settlements have few services. The residents of squatter settlements face many problems on a daily basis. The diagram below shows the problems faced by the residents of Khyalitsha in South Africa. Khyalitsha is a squatter settlement located near the city of Cape Town. Squatter settlements are known as townships in South Africa. Khyalitsha has a population of over 1.8 million people and is one of the largest townships in South Africa. Living conditions in Khyalitsha, Cape Town, South Africa Compare the conditions of the place you live in with those in a squatter town. Which conditions in Khyalitsha in South Africa would concern you most, if you lived there? Would it be the overcrowding and lack of space or lack of essential resources, e.g. electricity? Would it be the shortage of public transport, lack of jobs, or the risk of fires and disease? Improving squatter settlements The township of Soweto, outside Johannesburg, South Africa, in 1996 Over time the conditions in squatter settlements may improve. In many LEDCs local communities, charities and government departments are working together to try and improve conditions in squatter settlements. Improving conditions in a squatter settlement can lead to improvements in the residents' quality of life. There are a number of different approaches to improving conditions in squatter settlements. Approaches to improvement: Site and service schemes These give people the chance to rent or buy a piece of land. The land is connected to the city by transport links and has access to essential services (eg water). People build their own homes using money from a low-interest loan. Self-help schemes These give people the tools and training to improve their homes. Low-interest loans may be used to help people fund these changes. People may be given legal ownership of the land. Rural investment Improving the quality of life and creating greater opportunities in rural areas may prevent people from migrating to urban areas. Investment in rural areas may therefore help to improve conditions in the city as well. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Human Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Human Geography essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Changes in Guilford's Central Business District from 1968 to 2002.

    4 star(s)

    the results shown on the bar graph would be ultimate outcome of the two factors stated above. The explanation for the decrease of the vacant building would simply be the more efficient use of the land space of the CBD because the superb accessibility offers companies, especially retailers high turnover rates.

  2. To discover land uses in various parts of Southampton and to compare these with ...

    10 0 0 2 1 Millbrook Dock entrance 12 0 0 28 0 City Centre near junction with civic centre road 15 19 4 0 50 City Centre outside boots 15 10 1 0 80 City Centre near junction with Briton street 11 5 2 0 48 Dorchester Maud Road

  1. How and why housing Residential environments differ In different areas of Nuneaton.

    Bramdene Avenue * Housing layout and design - It was varied and interesting. Well spaced out. * Building materials - Every single house's material and des- ign were very attractive.

  2. Does the Bentalls Shopping Centre in Kingston Upon Thames meet the needs of the ...

    If they weren't, which was in some cases then it was probably because some one who might have lived in New Malden went to its neighbouring town to shop for food, Kingston. The bar graph on page represents results from almost exactly the same question as the previous except this

  1. GCSE Geography Settlement Coursework

    Giles, Grovelands, Summertown, Kidlington, Cowley Centre, Bicester, Abingdon, Blackbird Leys etc). Summertown's buses are often only coming in and out of large areas like central Oxford, among others. To prove my hypothesis I will be conducting a questionnaire, a tax disc survey and a bus count.

  2. It was a selfish idea to build the long groyne at hengistbury head

    Another example of a similar scenario is Steephill Cove, which is on the Isle of Wight: Steephill Cove is backed by residential development, and has Victorian coastal defences, which were partially upgraded in 1992/3 it was then recognised that further work was needed on the sea wall in the centre of the bay.

  1. Explain how different types of UK rural areas meet the motivations of ...

    health and well-being, and riding on our traffic free cycling trails with gentle gradients surrounded by beautiful countryside is much more fun than pounding the treadmill at your local gym. The bike hire place is next to a park. This allows visitors to park their cars and hire out a bike from the local area.

  2. Case Studies - Population, Settlement, Industry and Environment

    density include: Capital city of Gaborone, Second City of Francistown, and small mining areas Type Area/Reason Explanation Physical Fertile soils on western edge of Okavango Delta These fertile soils can lead to seasonal profits for the area Over 400mm rainfall in East More rainfall makes living in the East more

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work