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monsoon system

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Monsoon system is secondary circulation of the atmospheric circulation, it can affect the climate of large areas including south china, India. To understand more about the impact of monsoon and its related potential natural hazards, we should first discuss how monsoon system forms. Monsoon climates can be characterized as those where seasonal climate changes result from seasonal changes in the wind regime. In particular, the major monsoon areas exhibit twice yearly reversals in the prevailing wind direction. Such differing wind regimes lead to changes in all elements of the climate. It can also be seen as a gigantic land and sea breezes situation. ...read more.


The intertropical convergence zone or equatorial tough moves northwards allowing an inblowing of moist south-west to south winds to give the wet season in west Africa, India, china and most of SE asia. In winter, the land loses heat more rapidly than the sea. The land surface is colder than the sea surface. Cold air over the land sinks. As a result, air pressure over the land is higher than the sea. Wind blows from the land to the sea and therefore, offshore winter monsoon winds are dry. The areas influenced by the winter monsoon are dry in winter. Low lying clouds before rainfall in Singaporean asia, the northeastern winter monsoons take place from December to early march. ...read more.


During the northeast winter monsoon, Australia and southeast asia receive large amounts of rainfall. The Indian subcontinent and se asia have been regarded as the most typical examples of monsoon climate. Many parts receive 80% of their total precipitation within 3-4 summer months. Cherrapunji, assam, still holds the world recold for the wettest month and year in 1860-61. At the surface in India circulation is dominated by subtropical anticyclones. Trade winds blow outward from the land, over which air is subsiding, the air dries out and precipitation is largely prevented. 3km above the land surface the circulation is different. A strong subtropical westerly jet flows across mountain at this season. The southern branch of the jet is much stronger because of the strong thermal gradient above northern India. This upper westerly has the effect of intensifying the surface anticyclone. ...read more.

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