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Physical Case Studies AQA Revision notes - Ice, rivers and volcanoes.

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Introduction

The Restless Earth... Fold Mountains- The Andes... * Longest range of fold mountains in the world at 7000km long * FARMING: Much of the land is used for farming, using terraces to create areas of flat land on the slopes. These terraces help to retain water and limit the downward movement of the soil where the soil is thin in the first place. Most of the crops are grown in the lower valleys e.g. soybeans, rice and cotton * LLAMAS: Llamas can carry up to 25% of their body weight and are used to carry materials for irrigation to inaccessible areas * MINING: The Yanacocha gold mine in Peru is the largest in the world. The nearby town of Cajamarca has seen the population increase by eight times since the mines opened. The mines provide a source of jobs; however the growth brings an increased crime rate. * HYDROELECTRIC POWER: The steep slopes and narrow valleys are an advantage for HEP especially with the melting snow in spring e.g. the Yuncan project dams the Paucartambo and Huachon rivers in northern Peru * TOURISM: There are many natural attractions of the Andes, such as mountain peaks, volcanoes, glaciers and lakes and Machu Picchu and the Inca trail which attract tourists Volcano in a MEDC- Mt St Helens * Washington State, USA, fold mountains at a destructive plate margin * 20th March 1980 an earthquake under the mountain caused by moving magma * 3rd April 1980, a bulge appeared on the side of the mountain * 18th May 1980- eruption! ...read more.

Middle

Sediment is full of large, sharp stones. River looks murky because of suspension and the peat staining it brown. White water here too used for white water rafting. Cow-green reservoir is man made so industries and people on the lower land have water. Water can be released into river if there's a significantly reduced flow. Most powerful section of the river. 350m asl, valley flattens out and land used for cattle and sheep. End of upper course: High Force Waterfall, plunge pool at base, hard igneous rock above soft rock is called Whinstone, public footpath around waterfall called the Pennine Way and High Force Hotel. A gorge has formed downstream of the waterfall, which attracts tourism * MIDDLE COURSE: 95% of the land used for farming. Lots of the river's energy is lost to friction here, valley flattens and 10km floodplain created, also arable farming because of the soil's fertility, settlements start to be built, meanders start * LOWER COURSE: Darlington 30km from sea, but 75km by river because of meanders. Yarm 18km from mouth, too far for big ships to reach there. Stockton used for major industry, bridge built there during the Industrial Revolution, blocking of access to Yarm. Land predominantly used for industry, but some for recreation and tourism. Bed load very fine. Used to be marshland there, but now power station, chemical works, oil refineries, iron & steel works and a railway station because cheap and flat land, good transport links and not many building (undesirable place to live). ...read more.

Conclusion

Fluctuating temperatures, irregular weather patterns (including snow and rainfall) led to a greater number of avalanches than usual. Many people ski off-piste when in search of fresh snow, which may not have yet stabilised * In January 1994, six British doctors went skiing but after an avalanche, there was only one survivor * The importance of mountain safety is being highlighted by The Ski Club of Great Britain who are running courses in safety The Impact of Tourism on Fragile Environments- Antarctica * Small scale tourism began there during the 1950s * The Marco Polo cruise ship provides a 23 day cruise around the coast of Antarctica. * More than 99% of Antarctica is covered in ice, so little is left for tourist activity. * Few tourists are allowed on the ice, but they can do walking, kayaking, skiing, climbing, scuba diving and helicopter flights * The Impact of Tourism on Fragile Environments- Abondance, France * In 2007, following 15 years of unreliable snowfall, the ski lifts in Abondance closed for the last time. The local council is either considering developing other forms of winter sports (e.g. snowshoeing etc.) to reduce its dependence on deep snow for traditional skiing or to develop its summer programme of activities (e.g. hiking etc.) to promote the town as an all-year round resort rather than just a winter one. It is difficult to maintain a balance between protecting the environment or ensuring a secure economic future for the region ...read more.

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