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Plannng an expedition to an extreme environment.Svalbard. Glaciers as an attraction and under threat.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Extreme environment Task 1 The place that our expedition is going to take is in the region of Norway called Svalbard. To get there we have to take a boat from Norway port and bring our equipments ready for the cold environment. The average temperature is around 5�C and -12�C in winter. Equipments I need to bring on the expedition are: A parka is essential in cold weather. It insulates the heat even at a -47 degree Celsius. It is waterproof so the melted snow couldn't get in to your body. Insulator trousers are used to keep our legs warm. It is water proof with fleece lining to keep the heat in because the temperature is really low there. Fleece jumper is essential in this harsh weather condition. It keeps our body temperature in which is great. A woolly jumper is also good to keep heat in. I use this jumper as a spare in case the fleece gets dirty. A long sleeve shirt is to be worn before the jumper to keep me extra warm. Tracksuit bottoms with fleece lining are ideal to put on first before the thermal trousers. It will keep me extra warm. These are essential accessories for parts of our body like hands, neck and head. This faux fur hat keeps most of my body temperature in because the heat is loss through our head. Earmuffs are good to keep my ears warm; scarf is great to prevent coldness to enter my body. Waterproof gloves are used to keep my hands warm and prevent melted ice to get through the material. Thermal socks are there to keep my feet warm and these water proof boots are useful to walk through snow and uneven land. They have thick rubber soles to prevent slipping and provide good friction. Map and compasses are the must have. They will help me to find my way back if I get lost. ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, global warming doesn't occur in a short amount of time. It is measured over a long period and find out the changes in pattern of the temperature, ocean life, etc... 2: It is important to know who produce and interpret the evidence of global warming because they could be bias and have different views of the global warming. Some time they can exaggerate. It is good to know all the evidence that global warming caused by human and nature. This statement from Greenpeace is saying that the cause of global warming that makes ice melt is due to human activity such as burning fossil fuels in cars, aeroplane, bus, etc...They exaggerated it even though parts of it is down to human activity. The climate change is measured over many years, decades even centuries. Climate change doesn't happen that quickly. This evidence suggests that one of the reasons why glacier retreated faster is because some ice surges forward than the other. This is normal and is due to nature and not human activities. Task 3: Climate change and effects on the food chain A: Find out about phytoplankton that grows in Arctic waters. Phytoplankton - Microscopic plants and plant-like organisms found in massive quantities in the sea. They are known as 'the ocean's grass'. Algae bloom - A plankton bloom also known as algal bloom, is simply an area where phytoplankton (algae) reproduce very fast that you may find many thousand plant cells per litre of water. The chlorophyll in these plants colour the water green. Zooplankton - Microscopic animals and animal-like organisms found in the sea. 1: Just like any normal plant, phytoplankton needs light, warmth, nutrients, carbon dioxide and water in order to grow and reproduce. The condition and environment around it has to achieve some of the requirements for algae to grow. 2: The Ocean's bottom contains decaying plants and animals which carry nutrients; they are being brought to the surface by currents. ...read more.

Conclusion

The economy went down hill because there was not enough income and the population was decreasing. The Norwegian government decided that it would create new business opportunities on Svalbard. One of the main activities to be developed was tourism. Svalbard is a very beautiful wilderness, with many rare living organisms, and it's also a part of the Arctic that is easily accessible by plane. Because of the Gulf Stream, the temperature is not as cold compared to other places on the same Northern latitude. Longyearbyen received 25,000 tourists every year and they arrive by plane and another 25,000 visit on a cruise ship. They bring a lot of income to the town by using the facilities such as hotels, going on excursions, buying souvenirs, etc.... It's important that the government carefully manage the wilderness so that tourists can still enjoy coming here in the future because the view and places here are exclusive to Svalbard. It is advised not to use modern transport to go around on this island. Tourists can take the aeroplane or cruise ships but if they want to explore this land more it is best to only go with dogs, or on foot, or by skiing. One of the reasons they believe using those environmental friendly transport is because tourist come here from big city to find peace and quite. Silence is a valuable commodity today. If they raced around on snowmobiles, then people wouldn't want to come as much. In addition, motorised vehicles cause damage to the environment. They produce more C02 and destroy landscape. The Government of Norway has set a goal of trying to make Svalbard one of the best managed wildernesses in the world. To achieve this they have put a lot of regulations into force, including the Svalbard Environmental Protection Act. The purpose of this Act is to preserve a virtually untouched environment in Svalbard. Littering is forbidden, you can not pick a flower or even move a stone on the beach. ?? ?? ?? ?? HALLY 10R HALLY ...read more.

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