• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9

Revision notes - the Earth, causes and effects of Volcanoes and Earthquakes.

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐DYNAMIC PLANET Restless Earth Term Definition Atmosphere 1. The gases that make up the air around us. 2. Causes weather, climate and the greenhouse effect, which keeps the planet warm. 3. Oxygen for respiration and CO2 for plant growth. Hydrosphere 1. Includes all water and ice and is found on the earth?s crust. 2. Water moves around earth in the water cycle. 3. Needed for plant and animal life. Biosphere 1. Thin layer of living things on the crust. 2. Plants and animals can provide food and medicines for humans Geosphere 1. Rocks on the Earth?s crust and deeper into the core. 2. Core provides magnetic field protecting Earth from space radiation. 3. Includes: rocks (for building), fossil fuels and minerals (many uses). Lithosphere 1. Upper layer of the Earth which is very cool and brittle 2. Includes the crust and the very top of the mantle. Asthenosphere 1. Second layer of Earth including semi-molten rock found further into the mantle. Mesosphere 1. Third layer of Earth including semi-molten rock found further into the mantle. Biosphere LinksHumans use rocks for building and fossil fuels for energy Plants use carbon dioxide from the air and humans use oxygen Weather can erode rocks Atmosphere Humans, plants & animals need water to live Geosphere Water evaporates to form clouds in the atmosphere Water can be stored underground in rocks Hydrosphere Part Main Substances State Density Temp. ...read more.


When they erupt they throw a lot of ash into the air because of their ash layers. How are Earthquakes Caused? Plates do not move smoothly so when a plate gets stuck, pressure builds up. When the pressure is released an earthquake can take place. The point where the pressure is released is known as the focus and the point directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicentre. Seismic Waves are the shock waves created by the earthquake and they lose energy the further they travel from the focus and epicentre. They create the greatest damage at the epicentre and sometimes they can even lead to tsunamis. Case Study: Kashmir Date: 8/10/2005 Time: 08:52 (Pakistan standard time) Location: 1. Indian controlled Kashmir 2. 19km northeast from Muzaffarabad. 3. North of Pakistan. 4. Northwest of India 5. Continent of Asia What: 1. Moment Magnitude Scale: 7.6 2. Richter Scale: 5.2 3. Death toll: 74,698 4. Landslides Why: 1. Eurasian and Indian plate boundary 2. Also caused Himalayas formation 3. Destructive plate boundary Who: 1. 73,338 (Northwest Frontier Province) 2. 1,360 (Indian Administered Kashmir) 3. 4 (Afghanistan) 4. 106,000 were injured 5. 3 million left homeless Case Study: L?Aquila Date: 6/04/2009 Time: 03.30 Location: 1. ...read more.


More unemployment 7. Cost on health service 1. Vegetation destroyed on the south side of the island 2. Ash contains nutrients which fertilise the soil 3. Wildlife destroyed GENERAL Long Short 1. People killed/injuredDestruction of buildings 2. Disruption of services/ transport/communication links 3. Water pipes burst/contaminated 1. Shops & buildings destroyed ? looting 2. Transport/ communication disruption may affect trade 1. Landscape destroyed 2. Gas explosions = fires = damage woodland. 3. Landslides/flooding (tsunamis) 1. Disease 2. Rehousing 3. Shortage of food and water 1. Lose income 2. Can?t develop, just repair 3. Rebuilding the settlement 4. Jobs in construction 1. Important natural and human landmarks may be lost. LEDC MEDC 1. Poor communication so people may not get the warning 2. Less money for proper evacuation 3. They have poor emergency services 4. Less resources to repair & rebuild society 5. They aren?t always insured so can?t make up for their losses 1. Better communication so people are warned & can prepare more efficiently 2. More money for proper evacuation 3. They have better emergency services 4. More resources to repair & rebuild society 5. They are usually insured so can easily make up for their losses Local Responses International Responses 1. Immediate Rescue e.g. fire services 2. Donations from locals 3. Emergency services and medicine from within the country 1. Other countries donate money and medicines 2. Other countries send their rescue teams and emergency resources ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Physical Geography essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    What caused the Soufrire Hills Volcano to erupt?

    5 star(s)

    Therefore locals put pressure on officials to allow access for farming. After the eruption much of this land was destroyed by volcanic deposits. Survivors and Victims The 19 people who were killed by the pyroclastic flows and surges were in the Exclusion Zone.

  2. Coastal management.

    But they are not good at sheltering the shore. The main problem with them -apart from their propensity to rot - is that they cannot be made long enough or deep enough to significantly slow down the incoming rush of water.

  1. Physical Case Studies AQA Revision notes - Ice, rivers and volcanoes.

    bedroom homes, the US government gave $951m to rebuild industry and compensate residents, 10 million trees replanted, National Park established in 1982 to celebrate the miraculous return of life to the area * LONG TERM EFFECTS:, Increased risk of flooding due to new landscape, area more wealthy due to rise

  2. The structure of the Earth and the impact of volcanic eruptions.

    * President Carter sent out an extra two million of masks. * Shelters were built for stranded tourists and many had emergency treatment in nearby towns. Long-term responses: * The ash increased the fertility of the soil. * Buildings and bridges needed rebuilding.

  1. River Processes Revision Notes and Questions.

    It shows how the processed of erosion, deposition and transportation vary with river velocity. * The critical erosion velocity curve on the graph shows the minimum velocity needed for the river to pick up (erode) and transport particles of different sizes (in suspension or as bedload).

  2. Physical Geography Earth revision notes

    3 million were made homeless . Many diseases started to spread because of the dirty conditions . Diarrhoea started to spread , this was the main disease . Many people tried to rebuild their homes but couldn?t?;t because of the freezing conditions . Immediate responses People started digging with their hands because they didn?t have diggers and cranes .

  1. Climate Change revision

    Low-lying areas near sea level (e.g. the fens) could be flooded unless sea defences are strengthened. Possible disadvantages of climate change: Crops can be grown further north due to warmer weather. Drier conditions in the Russian steps may reduce crop yields. Reduced snowfall leading to the closure of alpine resorts.

  2. Earthquakes and volcanoes research

    Most transform boundaries are on the ocean floor. Faults This crack earns a special name once the rock along a crack has moved: fault. Faults are cracks or fractures in the earth's Lithosphere caused by stresses created by the movement of tectonic plates.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work