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River Nile and the Ancient Egyptian civilization.

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(pp. 35-37) Eddie C The Nile River flows northward across Africa for over 4,100 miles, making it the longest rifer in the world. Egypt's settlements arose along the Nile on a narrow strip of land made fertile by the river. The change from fertile soil to desert-from the Black Land to the Red Land- was so abrupt that a person could stand with one foot in each. The Gift of the Nile Early flooding brought the water and rich soil that allowed settlements to grow. Every year in July, rains and melting snows from the mountains of east Africa caused the Nile River to rise and spill over its banks. ...read more.


Environmental Challenges Egyptian farmers were much more fortunate than the villages of Mesopotamia. Compared to the unpredictable Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the Nile was as regular as clockwork. Even so, life in Egypt has its risks. * When the Nile's floodwaters were just a few feet lower than normal. The amount of fresh silt and water for crops was greatly reduced. Thousands of people starved. * When floodwaters were a few feet higher than usual, the unwanted water destroyed houses, granaries, and the precious seeds that farmers needed for planting. * The vast and forbidding desert on either side of the Nile acted as a natural barrier between Egypt and other lands. ...read more.


Between the First Cataract and the Mediterranean lay two very different regions. Because its elevation was higher, the river area in the south is called Upper Egypt. It is a skinny strip of land from the First Cataract to the point where the river starts to fan out into many branches. To the north, near the sea, Lower Egypt includes the Nile Delta region. The Nile provided a reliable source of transportation between Upper and Lower Egypt. The Nile flows north, so northward boats simply drifted with the current. Southbound boats hoisted a wide sail. The ease of contact made possible by this watery highway helped unify Egypt's villages and promote trade. ...read more.

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