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Rivers and landscapes

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Introduction

Rivers A river uses the material it has transported to erode its banks and river bed. As the velocity of the river increase the load that the river can carry also increases, this then increases the rate at which the river erodes. These are the main way in which river can erode: Attrition This is when larger boulders and other materials which the river is carrying collide and break up into smaller pieces. This mainly occurs in the highland areas where the rivers are still flowing. Hydraulic action This when the force from the river dislodges particles from the river banks and bed, this wideners the river bed and the side of the river. The amount of hydraulic action increases as the river grows in size. Corrasion This process generally occurs in the lowland areas as the particles are small enough to rub against the sides of the banks of the river. These particles are carried by suspension. ...read more.

Middle

The material from this is then added to the river content, making the erosion worse. The river itself is forced to divert around hillsides, the hillsides that are known as interlocking spurs. The V-shapes are mostly found in highland areas just like Burbage Moor. In many of the meanders and bends in the course of the river there are many river cliffs, which meanders are characterized by. These are cliffs on a river, which over hang where the river has eroded the outside bend. The outside bend is eroded by a mixture of hydraulic action and abrasion. This creates an overhang of material which can be destroyed if the erosion underneath becomes too much, this will make the cliff collapse as there is nothing supporting the weight. River cliff shown in the diagram River rejuvenation is caused when a river cuts down into its channel and it will leave behind it, its old flood plain on the valley side to form a river terrace. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are so many lake because of the volcanic rock, which doesn't allow water to seep away as it is a hard rock type. The high average rain fall percentage and the glacial valleys, mean that the valleys are able to store large volumes of water with out it escaping. Honister (picture) A U-shaped valley carved out of volcanic rock by glacial action. Leaving a very smooth glacial U-shaped valley. Striding edge (picture) The glacial impact on the Lake District can be seen though the many valleys and sharp mountains. The oldest rocks are Skiddaw Slate series and Borrowdale Volcanic series, dating back to around 500 million years ago. The Skiddaw slate is found in the north of the part and is thought to have been deposited in shallow seas. The Borrowdale Volcanic rocks are lot more resistant to weathering and form the highest peaks in the Lake's; this is because of it being resistant to most forms of weathering. Forms of igneous rock are in both of the series. The other large rock group is the Silurian Windermere Group which is made up of limestone that rests upon the volcanic rock. ...read more.

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