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Tectonic Plates and Volacanoes - Keywords and definitions.

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Keywords - Tectonic Plates Magma: Hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling. Molten: Made liquid by heat; melted. Volcano: An opening in the earth's crust through which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected. Shield Volcano: A volcano with long, gentle slopes, built primarily by lava flows. Cone Volcano: Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic formations. They are built by ejecting from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. Composite Cone: Known as Stratovolcano, it is a tall, conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) ...read more.


Mantle: The layer of the earth between the crust and the core. Core: The core is a layer rich in iron and nickel found in the interior of the Earth. It is composed of two sub-layers: the inner core and outer core. The core is about 7,000 kilometres in diameter. Constructive Boundary: Occur where two plates slide apart from each other. Mid-ocean ridges (e.g. Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and active zones of rifting (such as Africa's Great Rift Valley) are both examples of divergent boundaries. Destructive Boundary: Occur where two plates slide towards each other commonly forming either a subduction zone (if one plate moves underneath the other) or a continental collision (if the two plates contain continental crust). ...read more.


Epicentre: The point on the earth's surface directly above the hypocentre, where the energy of an earthquake is first released. Focus: it is right above the epicentre. Tsunami: A long high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance. Richter scale: A numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake on the basis of seismograph oscillations. Seismic wave: An elastic wave in the earth produced by an earthquake. Supervolcano: Is an enormous volcano that is an order of magnitude larger than ordinary volcanoes. A supervolcano occurs when a huge magma chamber in the Earth's crust erupts after being under great pressure, causing a large caldera to form as the land over the magma chamber collapses. Mercalli scale: A twelve-point scale for expressing the local intensity of an earthquake. ...read more.

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