• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Long Term Effects of Volcanic Eruptions

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

1Long-term effects of volcanic eruptions Done by: Clare, Janice, Nadhirah, Nurul Dinie & Peng Ho of Temasek Academy, Temasek Junior College Content Page 1. Introduction to Mount Pinatubo --> General information --> Long-term effects of Mount Pinatubo --> Literature Review 2. Introduction to Mauna Loa, Mount St. Helens, Krakatoa --> General information --> Long-term & immediate effects --> Literature Review 3. Comparison between the 3 volcanoes and Mount Pinatubo --> Which volcano will cause the most damage 4. Conclusion --> Why people should be concerned with the long-term effects of volcanoes --> What people can do about such effects Introduction to Mount Pinatubo Mount Pinatubo is located in Philippines, in the central area of the island of Luzon. It is bordered by 3 provinces namely Pampanga, Zambales and Tarlac. It is part of the western volcano chain that extends more than 137 miles in a north south direction. The volcano began to be active approximately around 1.1 million years ago. It is a stratovolcano that comprises of numerous lava domes surrounded by layers and layers of pyroclastic material. The volcanic eruptions of Mount Pinatubo are separated by centuries of inactivity or quiescence. This allows dense tropical vegetation to grow around the volcano during these periods of quiescence. The eruptions are usually destructive, explosive and massive in size and involve the emission of large quantities of ash and pumice. Subsequently, this results in formation of lava domes. Devastating eruption In June 1991, after about 400 years of inactivity, Pinatubo produced one of the most massive explosions the world has ever seen. Before the major explosion, a series of minor explosions and earthquakes began on June 12. ...read more.

Middle

composed of a regular cone, with a base diameter of about 7km, reaching an overall height of almost 9840 feet, approximately 3000m. A series of minor earthquakes signaled that the volcano would return to activity. The explosion of the magma accumulated in the mountains. Simultaneously, cloud of gas and debris blasted northward by the explosion and traveled at supersonic speed at an estimated temperature of 250 degree C, devastating almost 232 square miles or 600 km2 of forest land. Vertical column of gas and ash formed over the volcano reaching a height of about 16km. following that, a series of pyroclastic flow descended along the valleys of the volcano. Around 5pm paroxysmal phase of the eruption ended leaving a destroyed landscape and a gutted mountain. Following the eruption, a series of lahars added further damage to the surrounding territory causing devastation in many of the river valleys that spread out from the volcano. After the may 18 eruption, st Helens erupted 5 more times but none as intense as the first. Some small eruptions that occur during winter months melt part of the snow cover setting off lahars and avalanches. Mauna Loa Introduction Being 4km above sea level and another 13 km below sea level, the shield volcano Mauna Loa that stands at 17km above its base is known as the world's largest volcano. It is situated on the Island of Hawaii and having erupted for 33 times since 1843, it is one of most active shield volcanoes in the world. Its last eruption was in 1984. There are no records of deaths directly caused by Mauna Loa volcanic eruptions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Once St Helens recovers to its original cone-shape however, it is highly likely that a large-scale eruption will occur. Nevertheless, this would not happen for at least another few centuries. Mauna Loa As compared to the other two volcanoes, Mauna Loa erupts the most frequently, with 33 known eruptions since 1843. The eruptions were fairly small and non-violent-in comparison to Krakatau and St Helens -- and the long-term damage is minimal as mentioned in an earlier section in the report. Thus since the periods in between eruptions are fairly short, we conclude that the pressure-buildup is small. Hence, if Mauna Loa were to erupt again, we believe that the long-term damage would not be as devastating as Krakatau or St Helens as it will most likely be a non-violent eruption. The less violent the eruption, the amount of lava and gases emitted will be smaller. Krakatau Krakatau has not erupted since 1883, which means it has the longest period of inactivity among the three volcanoes. Hence, as mentioned earlier, since Krakatau has the longest period of quiescence, we can safely assume that the pressure-buildup is larger. Thus, we believe that the next time Krakatau erupts, the eruption will be a violent one. The more violent the explosion, the higher the probability that it will affect the climate and make radical changes to the environment. In conclusion, we believe that if Krakatau were to erupt, it would cause the most damaging long-term effects as it is highly probable that its eruption will be a violent one. Volcano eruptions will also be a concern to people. This is because, there will be a greater risk and impact on the country's economy as we venture into a more and more developed society where each event will heavily cause knock-on effect on others. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Physical Geography essays

  1. mount pinatubo

    supplies contaminated Long-term effects * Rice harvest of 1991 ruined (due to large ash falls)

  2. Montserrat volcano and its effects on the inhabitants.

    Fishing areas are now restricted because of reef loss and danger to human life. Catches are already down, and because of the time-lag the full impacts have not yet been observed. This means all the hundreds of fishermen, catching and selling their fish had lost their business, moreover is struggling

  1. 2009 Year 4 Geography Term 3 Week 3 Assignment

    Another reason would be cold air rolling down slopes in a valley and displacing the warm air at the bottom of the valley. Other reasons that cause temperature inversion would be that warm air rises over cold air at a warm front or vice versa when the cold air undercuts warm air a cold front.

  2. Views on the Future of Montserrat. There were many primary impacts of the ...

    The rock above the "pool of magma" had collapsed opening a vent big enough to cause an eruption. There were many primary impacts of the volcanic eruption that occurred on Montserrat in 1997. Large areas were covered with volcanic material; the capital city of Plymouth was buried under 12 metres of mud and ash.

  1. Revision notes - the Earth, causes and effects of Volcanoes and Earthquakes.

    Cone volcanoes tend to be found at destructive plate boundaries and they are tall with steep sides. This is because they give out thick and viscous acid lava which flows slowly and hardens quickly. They erupt violently throwing out steam, gas and lava bombs.

  2. Earthquakes and volcanoes research

    Usually we only feel the bump and rattle of these waves. S-waves (secondary waves) An S wave is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid rock. This wave moves rock up and down, or side-to-side. Surface waves There are two types of surface waves: Love waves and Rayleigh waves.

  1. Physical Geography Earth revision notes

    Cliffs Impacts on people?s lives * Homes near the cliff (eg in Swansea) are at risk of collapsing into the sea * Property prices along the coast have fallen sharply for those homes at risk from erosion * Accessibility to some settlements has been affected because roads near the cliffs

  2. Why did Harry Truman die in the Mt St. Helens eruption?

    The reason why they are found at this plate boundary is because destructive plate boundary is when an Oceanic Crust and Continental Crust are pushed towards each other. Now the oceanic and the continental crusts are different types of plate boundary which have different properties.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work