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The role of leadership in global politics: do leaders make a difference?

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The role of leadership in global politics: do leaders make a difference? Abstract The rise and decline of world powers has attracted much scholarly attention in recent years. The theory of long cycles answers parsimoniously the question: why, in the past half millennium, have Portugal, the Dutch Republic, Britain (twice), and the United States risen to global leadership while others failed to do so? This accounts for the success, or failure, of individual states, but to explain the entire sequence we need to employ an evolutionary paradigm that proposes that each of these long cycles is one mechanism in a spectrum of global evolutionary processes. The leadership succession is an intermediate stage in the evolution of global politics whose next likely major phase, reaching a high point later in the 21st century, will be the gradual absorption of the informal role of global leadership, when embedded in a democratic community, into a network of more formal positions within an emerging global organization of a federalist character. Introduction The rise and decline of global powers has in recent years drawn considerable attention among students of world politics and society, who have mainly focussed on two questions: why do some states rise to a unique position of global leadership while others fail? And why is that those powers that have risen so successfully ultimately also tend to decline? ...read more.


Those that decline and fail to make it to a second term are those that have failed in their second bid, for reasons specified in propositions for disobeying the instructions and neglecting to bring together the necessary ingredients. In other words, we do not need to separate theories of rise and decline; a good theory of rise has implicit in it a theory of decline. The problem of continuance of global leadership is identical with that of re-selection. Effectiveness is in part a function of power concentration. War victory leaves the world power commanding a lion's share of military and economic power in the global system. "Every execution phase to date the world power has enjoyed a healthy monopoly of seapower . That meant unchallenged control over naval communications, and a powerful assist to installing and "locking-in " the post-war order. However, monopoly also ultimately leads to complacency, to "resting on one's laurels." (http://www.growconnect.com.au/leader-1.html) Production of global order has in recent years been taken as the basic output of global leadership, the claim being that order in world politics is typically created by a single dominant power and that the maintenance of order requires continued hegemony. Order, in this context, has meant peace and a liberal economy. In our perspective this is too expansive a view, and the expression needs qualification, since the proposition generalizes only from the most recent British and American cases. ...read more.


Additionally, new ones will be proposed as innovations for policy agendas in response to demands for the solution of global problems. Such combinations and recombinations are more probable in free societies, hence are not as random as mutations are thought to be in Darwinian biology. These are the sources of variation in the population of strategies. The political and social environment of this population of strategies, including specific institutions, should then be regarded as comprising a selective factor or mechanism that helps to determine which parts of the program will persist, and which policies shall be substituted for by new programs. In global politics this has been most directly the mechanism of macrodecision, which in the past five centuries assumed the form of global war but which might evolve new forms in the future. In global economics, on the other hand, the competititve environment of the world market has served as the basic mechanism of selection. Conclusion The global political process will continue on its time path, following the same temporal structure as it was outlined this assignment. What we might expect to change is the specification of the necessary conditions of that process. While remaining defined by our four basic categories, the content of these conditions changes with the eras of global politics. Therefore, it is observed that a distinct global political structure corresponds to each period of global politics. Reference list - http://www.growconnect.com.au/leader-1.html - Robbins Stephen, (2003), Organizational Behavior, Tenth Edition - http://www.mapnp.org/library/ldr_dev/cmptncy/cmptncy.htm - http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/democracyinamerica/support/dia_15_guide.pdf - http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~ilp/current.shtml - http://archieve.greenpeace.org/comms/97/arctic/politics/kyoto/pto6.html - http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/mba/learning/curriculum/elect_leadership.html - http://www.london.edu/summit2003/Programme/global_leadership.html - http://www.carleton.ca/~sdalby/DalbyVienna.pdf ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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