• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extend has the Congestion Charge in London been successful?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Business and Economics To what extend has the Congestion Charge in London been successful? Unit 3 Module 2/3 Name Sam Nurding Candidate Number 0175 Centre Number 65217 Contents Page 1. Contents Page 2. Introduction to Investigation 3. Why a scheme was needed? 4. Why a scheme was needed (continued) 5. Theory behind the charge 6. Theory behind the charge (continued) 7. Investigation: Was the Charge successful? 8. " " " 9. " " " 10. Investigation: Was the Charge Successful? 11. " " " 12. " " " 13. Investigation: Was the charge successful? / Did everyone benefit? 14. Did everyone benefit? 15. " " " 16. " " " 17. " " " 18. Did everyone benefit? 19. Conclusion 20. Bibliography Introduction My investigation is based on the Congestion Charge placed in London on the 17 February 2003. I aim investigating how successful the Congestion Charge has been since is was placed in 2003, to see if there has been a cut of cars entering the zones which have negative effects on the environment through carbon dioxide etc, the traffic flow in London and how the charge has affected businesses in the charging zone of London. In order to see the effects of the Congestion Charge, and whether it has been a success, I first need to investigation the motive about why the Congestion Charge was set up. Why a charging Scheme was needed? There are many different views why the Major of London decided that the Congestion Charge was needed in Central London. One of the many reason that a charging scheme was introduced was because London suffers the worst traffic congestion in the UK and amongst the worst in Europe. From the table below you can see that London has by the majority of road users, either on motorways where over 100,000 vehicles travel daily or major roads in built and non-built up areas where over 80,000 travel daily. ...read more.

Middle

As you can see from the graph below, vans and lorries entering congestion charging zones had fallen by 11% since the introduction of the charge. However, the number of taxis that are exempt from the charge had increased by almost 20% and buses/coaches entering the charging zone had increased by nearly 25%. Increase can also be seen in the number of motorcycles by 12%. In 2004 to 2005, the amount of cars on the roads during the charging hours has more or less been at a constant rate, as seen from the graph below. So far, from my results the effects of the congestion charge in London are summarised: * Congestion inside the charging zone reduced by 30%. * Traffic levels reduced by 18%. * 30% reduction in number of cars and 65,000 fewer car movements. * 20% increase in movements by buses coaches and taxis. * Increase of 29,000 bus passengers entering zone during morning peak. * Bus reliability and journey times improved - additional time passengers wait at bus stops caused by service delays or missing buses improved by 20% across all of London and by 30% in and around charging zone. * Bus routes serving charging zone experience 60% less disruption due to traffic delay. As you can see from the results, the congestion charge has helped slow down the amount of traffic entering the charging zone tremendously. For this matter, I believe that the congestion charge was a success. However, was it just the congestion charge that helped to reduce the traffic in central London? Some other factors which could have relieved traffic are: * Increase supply of substitute (public transport) * Decrease price of substitute (public transport) - a higher demand for public transport. Increase supply of Public Transport (substitute) From the table above, you can see that from 2002-2004 since the congestion charge had started there was an increase in most public transport but the biggest increase was the amount of buses used in Central London. ...read more.

Conclusion

The higher costs of premium or central locations become increasingly less justified. Is It Really The Congestion Charge? There are multiple factors at work in the economy at any one time, all of which may have had an effect on the retail trade. Explanations as to the reason behind any changes which were experiencing in business activity are as follows: 1. Closure of the central line 2. Fear of terrorism 3. Competition from other shopping centers 4. Economic downturn Conclusion Overall, from my investigation I can clearly see that introducing a charging zone in central London has definitely reduced the amount of congestion on the roads by a large amount, even though the figure still remains high, over the last few years the number has stayed at a constant rate which is good for the road users. The charging zones had also had a positive impact on public transport as more people take advantage of their public transport and their cheap prices, as bus rates have fallen since the introduction of the charge. Another positive factor that has appeared since the introduction of the charge has been the reality of the busses and much better timetable for all passengers to enjoy. However, as traffic has reduced by 30% businesses have found the impact of the charge must harder to support. Over 66% of businesses in the central charging zone do not support the charge as their sales and revenue have seen decreases, and over 26% of businesses have considered relocation, away from the charging zones. In this case, the charging zones have had a negative impact and could be considered as a failure. However, the charge was not set out to help business in the same way to help congestion in central London. The aims where achieved and congestion in central London has seen much improvement. Therefore, there is no reason why other Countries have chosen to adopt the same tax in their major cities to help tackle the problem of congestion and the externalities is has on their environment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Human Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Human Geography essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Changes in Guilford's Central Business District from 1968 to 2002.

    4 star(s)

    A clean, civilized society often reflects on its wealth, because the money made high quality education available. It is a fact that on national scale people had became wealthier since the 60s, thus the pattern in the towns and cities must have changed to enable this but to take place and they must also have been impacted by it.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Economics Coursework- Traffic Congestion

    4 star(s)

    The demand of car use will decrease. Another alternative would be to introduce bus lanes, which will change demand conditions for road use through regulation and legislation. With the bus lanes it will restrict the use car access giving priority to buses so it makes public transport more attractive alternative to the car.

  1. Geography Conclusion- traffic congestion

    During the investigation I found a number of problems that could be the cause for the huge amounts of congestion on the routes leading into Birmingham City Centre. However, in my opinion the main source of traffic congestion on routes leading into Birmingham City Centre is the lack of use of "car-sharing".

  2. Windsor Investigation

    We then met back up outside the castle and prepared to leave, as we left I decided that I'd definitely come back some time soon. On the way back we began to regret our decision, to not visit some of the attractions, as the other groups told of there day and there visits to some of the attractions.

  1. Work Experience Diary - counting traffic.

    We were going to the survey in Addenbrookes to ask them a couple of questions. The survey was based on if people worked in Addenbrookes or not. I was picked up by Kiran, who brought along her sister. Kiran worked in the IT section where she inputted data.

  2. The aim of my coursework, investigating shopping patterns in Brent, is based on answering ...

    However as I divided my pedestrian count into gender and age groups it also told me how many which particular age or gender group was sighted at the shopping location more. This extra piece of information proved to be useful since it provided me with additional background information on the

  1. The development of London Docklands is probably the most dramatic change in London since ...

    The situation was different for permanent employees who, according to The Times in August 1889, could receive from 20s a week. A docker's work was always hard, and few, if any, facilities such as toilets were provided. Working in cold and wet conditions also contributed to the high accident rate in the docks.

  2. Changes in Transport 1750-1900

    In time, the railway took most of the canal traffic and profit because the transport of the canals was too slow. As with roads the development of the canal system helped manufacturers move their goods safer and more cheaply and albeit more slowly, which in turn helped them become more competitive.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work