• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent are cities of the developing world governed by the neo-liberal conventions of the developed world.

Extracts from this document...


If we are to look at the extent to which developing world cities are governed by the conventions of the developed world we need to be aware of how these conventions are enforced and fostered upon them, what tools do the developed world have for empowering its own processes and what are the motivations that drive developed nations towards the global ways. But what are the short and long term effects of adopting neo-liberal global conventions and what effect will these polices have upon the cities and surrounding areas. What will happen to the established rhythms, and will the processes have any benefit for the developing cities. What alternatives exist outside of the globalised western based ideal. But before these points are answered we need to look at what are the main theories covering the way that power is exerted by global cities ensuring that neo-liberal conventions and practices spread to new areas. The two main opponents of the way in which global cities perpetuate their neo liberal practices and spread their power are Saskia Sassen and Manuel Castells. Sassen (1991) sees the web of connections passing through one global city to the next. The Global city controls the flows of space around its vicinity, passing out connections to local sites which then flow back to the centre of the global city and back into the global networks. ...read more.


In addition to the above two transnational non-government organisation the activities of credit reference agencies have also come to exert pressure and power of the policies of developing countries. Credit rating agencies have the power to set the credit worthiness of a county/city/region and this worthiness sets the interest rates that loans and other lendings are based ie, the cost of borrowing. Like the World Bank and the IMF the credit reference agencies are based in major global cities, with all but one of the major agencies based in the USA. They can be seen as a tool of the neo liberal global economies. Through the activities centred in the global cities money/financial assistance is leant, granted and written off if the developed countries follow western processes and entertain the flows of information that bring with it western practices and ideals. But is the one development aid suits all the right way, is there room for all countries to develop along the same path, what happens along the way? Developed countries have found themselves in debt, a debt that is owed to rich developed countries, they found themselves unable to service their obligations and have been forced into neo-liberal policies in order to get financial aid, in whatever form. But other countries were not forced into indebtedness, Columbia, for instance did not find itself in uncontrollable debt but it's capital, Bogot�, has followed free market principles and attempted to become a local powerhouse in South America. ...read more.


That once tied to the policies of the west the developed countries have to meet conditions in order to receive aid, be it grants, loans or debt write-off. Countries that stray from these policies are threatened with sanctions or increased costs of borrowing and that these form a metaphorical rail road along which the developing country has no choice but to follow, no matter what impact the neo liberal policies have on their established economies. Yet other webs of connections do exist and other developing nations have chosen their own trajectories, such as Kuala Lumpur, but Malaysia is not constrained by the levels of debt found in South America and Africa. Being less reliant on the Organisations of the west they have more freedom to choose and whilst some like Singapore have chosen the western way other chose not to. As Castells and Sassen both state, power is not physically fixed in one place. Connections ebb and flow in the world rankings it is only by staying within at the top of the powerful connections that Global cities can exert their control. What if Malaysia has got it right and Singapore has it wrong in the future Muslim connections could be the dominant connections who knows which is the right path of development or web of connections, the professionals in the current global cities think they have it right but there have been many empires in the past that have come and gone with the passage of time. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Physical Geography essays

  1. World cities are those cities with global economic, national and cultural significance & authority. ...

    This is shown through such places as 5th Avenue in New York City and Champs de Elysee in Paris where retailers offer very high priced goods. (47th street in NY has 80% of US diamond sales)

  2. A comparison of two retail spheres of influence

    This applies to almost every situation because the low order store is our daily goods store; therefore, we visit the low order store more often than the high order store. When we visit the store almost every other day, we'll spend less because the goods are cheap and it is

  1. To delimit the edge of the Central Business district of Nottingham along a transect ...

    Zone 1 had a fairly negative mean view of 1.5 this shows that the area has a lot of graffiti also it is not being cleared up this maybe due to (relating back to Hypothesis 2) it being a residential area so the council do not think that there is any necessity in cleaning up the Graffiti.

  2. Brazil's economic crisis.

    The only small amount of fertile land faces few problems such as over cultivating and primitive farming methods. So what people have tried to do is cut down some of the rainforest. This process called deforestation has proved to be a very bad idea because it decreases rainfall because moisture is no longer evaporating into the air from the trees.

  1. geography introduction

    He blieved that the fourth ring along was filled with the middle class residential in whom the people in life who have a medium amount of money and can afford to live in a regular sized house . These houses tend to be inter war period.

  2. To what extent Rothbury fits a model of tourist honeypot

    and were sent to diffrent places in rothbury and were asked to stand and count the number of cars going both the ways in a time limit of six minutes. We also counted the pedestrian count in the same way as Traffic count.

  1. How has the landscape developed along the coastline between Prawle Point & Start Bay ...

    The money made from the jobs could be used to restrict crime in Barkingside, by setting up CCTV, and more police patrolling the area. Socio-Economics of Slapton, and Barkingside Here are the Socio-Economics for Slapton, compared to Barkingside: Property Slapton Barkingside All �412,737 (23)

  2. River Processes Revision Notes and Questions.

    They are like mini waterfalls. Meanders are formed by combines erosion and deposition. Meanders form where alternating pools (deep water)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work