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World cities are those cities with global economic, national and cultural significance & authority. Because of this, they are major centres for communications, banking and finance, HQs of NGOs such as TNCs as well as tourist meccas.

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Introduction

EXAMINE THE ROLE OF WORLD CITIES AND THE OPERATION OF THESE CITIES WITHIN GLOBAL NETWORKS World cities are those cities with global economic, national and cultural significance & authority. Because of this, they are major centres for communications, banking and finance, HQs of NGOs such as TNCs as well as tourist meccas. The major roles of world cities are to provide global economic & cultural authority, and doing so they have developed strong and rapid increasing global networks have over time. The three major dominant world cities are London, New York and Tokyo and they posses all the characteristics mentioned above. The first major role of a world city is to provide global economic authority. It does this through 5 ways: 1. Control centre of global economy: the size of a world city's stock market is a good indicator of the city's financial power in the global economy. For example, in '93 the New York Stock Exchange traded $4221 billion, while the Sydney Stock Exchange traded only $204 billion. ...read more.

Middle

The other major role of a world city is to provide a global cultural authority. Cultural authority is the associations between world cities and global culture. An example of a world city showing global sporting culture is the international TV/ Radio/ Internet coverage of soccer/rugby world cups, tennis/ golf opens as well as the Olympics via the globalisation of communications. Such cultural authority demands social infrastructure. This includes hotels, office blocks, airports, railways and entertainment, which allows people to make contact face to face & develop global social networks. Examples of such infrastructure include Wimbledon (London), Wembley (London) and Stadium Australia (Sydney). Tourists then associate certain global culture between certain world cities. For example, Amsterdam is commonly associated with sex - this attracts many tourists p.a. to Amsterdam and generates much profit for economy of the Netherlands. Such global economic and cultural roles of world cities have created strong global networks. That is, cities being connected to each other. This is done through: 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

Such methods above that have helped develop strong networks between world cities have also increased the relationships between world cities. As a result, there are three world cities that each dominate other world cities in the same region/time and economic zones. They are New York, Tokyo and London. Thus, there are 3 sectors: - N American core: (NY) Chicago, Toronto, LA, Miami, etc. - W European core: (London) Paris, Zurich, Milan, Amsterdam, etc. - W Pacific core: (Tokyo) Sydney, Singapore, HK, Osaka, etc. As one dominant world city closes activity, the focus switches to other world cities in different time zones - this has caused convergence to occur. (eg Tokyo to London to New York). This switching however makes it difficult for other cities to enter the high-end of world trade. As can now be seen, the major roles of world cities are that of economic and cultural authority, and they operate within strong global networks. Such networks have strengthened relationships between world cities so that the world is constantly active, wherever you are positioned on the globe. ...read more.

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