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Child Development 0 to 16 years Babies and children develop at different rates, also consideration needs to taken into account any special needs or health problems of individuals any environmental issues such as housing a child living on the top of a high raised lift served block of flats is not going to get the same amount of physical exercise as a child who has a huge back garden, Having said this Parenting is a huge factor, a parent could encourage daily fresh air and exercise. Poor parenting could also affect a Childs development , for example if a child is not spoken to there speech can not be developed , If a child is not given the right foods and vitamins there physical development could be affected in growth and physical development. Children learn through play and children of all ages need to Play and socialise to learn , grow and develop onto there next stage areas of learning , Each area of learning is connected with holistic development so a child is seen as a whole and is acquiring new Life skills and development . Children usually develop in the same sequel but will develop at different rates, but a typical child could develop at the following rates. At birth. Newborn babies are born already using their 5 senses but as they grow and learn these senses will grow stronger, they enjoy looking at faces and can focus up to 1 metre away. They are born with many reflexes such as swallowing, suckling, rooting, grasp reflex, startle, walking and standing. Newborn babies are very curled up. They are unable to be toileted so wear a nappy which will need changing often. Newborn babies need lots of sleep. They feed from there mother breast milk or have formula milk made up in bottles. Physical Development Gross motor skills. When placed on there back or front a newborn baby turns its head to 1 side, when placed on there front the bottom raises and there knees tuck up under the abdomen. ...read more.


She can kneel upright. And squat down to pick up something from the floor and return to a standing position. Can climb upstairs with support by a rail or an adult hand, but May still come down stairs on there stomachs or crawl backwards. She is starting to run, but unable to avoid obstacles in her pathway. Fine motor skills Can now build a tower with 3 or more wooden blocks or bricks, Can scribble when holding a pen or pencil, and thread a few large beads onto a string. Can remove objects from bottles or tubs by turning them upside down. She has more control over her wrist movements. Intellectual and sensory development. She can now recognise familiar people at a distance, and recognises herself in a mirror. She no longer takes everything to her mouth. Communication, language and literacy. She could know the names of most of her body parts and will point to them when asked. Uses between 6 and 40 words and understands many more. Can echo the last part of what someone else is saying, will start to use gestures as well as words. Will enjoy trying to sing and enjoys songs and song type games. She may referrer to herself by her name, and she will start to recognise that people have different thoughts and feeling then she has. Emotional, social and Behavioural. Long term memory is progressing, plays still alone or alongside others, Independence has started and they like to try things for themselves like dressing, washing teeth cleaning etc. They are also aware that others are concerned or fearful for them when they are climbing running etc. Have occasional temper tantrums and get frustrated when unable to do something. Enjoy stories and rhymes that are of a repetition nature. They enjoy fine motor and sensory play such as posting objects, screwing unscrewing, Painting and scribbling, sand and water play, stacking beakers and putting them inside each other, simple wooden puzzles etc. ...read more.


The voice deepens (Voice breaks caused by testosterone that enlarges the vocal cords), Adam's apple protrudes, and his muscles will develop larger. Towards the end of puberty boys will develop facial hair. His penis can erect without physical touch. Mature sperm is present towards the end of puberty. Like girls Body odour becomes a problem, skin becomes oilier and they are prone to spots. Communication, language and literacy. After puberty young adult experience a shift in thinking and think more like adults , think about possibilities , starting planning ahead for there future's , thinking through hypotheses , solving problems in a systematic manor. Have fast, neat handwriting, most will be preparing for exams, colleges and there future. Emotional, social and Behavioural. Adolescence is a very emotional and confusing time for teenagers .They want to be liked and excepted by there peers , they show a interest in fashions and music and like being with the in crowd. Peer pressure kicks in. They are increasing there independence and depend on friends rather than parents for emotional support. Some may alternate from child behaviour to adult behaviour; they are aware of there changing bodies and may be anxious about this and become self conscious. They often felt misunderstood as they will not share the same views as parents, they may want to test the boundaries against there parents and authorities. Some may be having relationships , others may be questioning sexuality , drugs , alcohol and some may be smoking to fit in with there peers. Birth to three matters framework. The birth to three matters frame work is for all who work with any child. The frame work focuses on the child rather than the curriculum. It identifies four aspects: 1) A strong child, this is to develop a strong child through support emotionally, encouging self confidence, sense of belonging. 2) A skill full communication. Building up relationships, encouraging a voice, listening skills and responding. 3) A competent learner. Giving children the opportunity to explore and understand the world in which they live. ...read more.

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