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GCSE: Child Development
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- Marked by Teachers essays 30
Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. He believed that cognitive development is a result of others transmitting rules and norms to children. Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice, first on the social level, and later on the individual level. First between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological. This applies equally to voluntary attention to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals (Vygotski, 1978, page 57) An example of this being the pointing of a finger.
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As society evolved, so did the system of enumeration. Our modern day society uses Arithmetic, which are symbols to represent different numbers. It can be said then that counting, calculations and measurement is a social requirement. Dr Maria Montessori used to point out in her lectures that our whole civilisation was based on mathematics. Engineering, navigation, architecture, aeronautics, machinery all depend on mathematical calculations. Government bodies and almost all organizations depend on the collection and interpretation of statistics. Even the human intelligence is graded and given a numerical value, in the form of the IQ level.
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Behaviourists argue for nurture, although the potential for learning is innate. The cognitive approach does not completely side with nurture, as it supports the view that the structure of the mental system is innate. The psychoanalytic approach also uses both nature and nurture. The innate, is altered by experience, motivations are driven by instincts. The evolutionary approach supports nature whilst the humanistic approach supports nurture. The social constructionist approach takes the view that society moulds us. (http://www.garysturt.free-online.co.uk...es%20and%20issues/nature%20nurture.htm) Biological theorists try to draw a map for nature's influence on a child's development.
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After eight weeks, the embryo may have grown to between 3 and 4 cm, has a recognisable heartbeat and the beginnings of eyes, ears, mouth, legs and arms. At this stage the growing organism is called foetus. During the remaining seven months before birth, all the organs continue to develop. By 20 weeks, the foetus will have reached about half the length of the baby at birth. By 32 weeks, the foetus will be about half its birth weight. Birth At about nine months after contraception the baby will be born.
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* Infants have the ability to recognise and interact with people. Babies prefer the sound of human voices to other sounds. This helps the baby learn the voice of their mother. Within a few weeks, the baby starts to recognise other well-known faces, such as carers, grandparents, brothers and sister. Of course, babies are helpless when it comes to their muscle control. For example babies cannot lift their head, roll over or sit up without assistance (depending on how old the baby is).
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Other regulations of health and safety have been added since the introduction of the act. There is also other Health and Safety regulations such as the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 - this act requires employers to display official posters etc giving basic information on health and safety law so the staffs are always aware of the requirements of the health and safety acts. All people whom care for children should be aware of the health and safety requirements without having to refer to any legislations or guidelines although it is good to have them available.
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The children will be counting the numbers on the timer from the microwave. After that they all will have a turn to put the cornflakes and syrup in the bowl I would supervise them because the bowl might still be hot. They will all give it a stir and fill their own cake cases up. The activity that I am doing is suitable for children with disabilities because the tables are high for the wheelchair to go under them. Chocolate corn flakes INGREDIENTS > Cooking chocolate > Cornflakes > Syrup EQUIPMENT > Microwave > Wooden spoon (to stir everything together)
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> Can stoop or squats. > Many children (but not all of them) will learn to use toilet. The physical development of a 6 year old Children that are six years old are full of curiosity, and are developing their own interests. > They also can catch and throw balls. > The children are gaining in strengths and agility: they can jump off apparatus at school with confidence. > They can run and jump with confidence > A six year old can hop easily with a good balance. > Build a tower with Lego. > Can ride a two-wheel bicycle.
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The diagram shows how the school are funded. The parliament gives money to the sector of state for education. Then they give the money to department for education. Then they give the money to Bradford education and final Bradford give the money to schools like donkey infants and nursery school. When the school receives the money from Bradford education the school then has a budget. This can be to employ teachers and equipment for the students and the can also arrange after school clubs. Education Bradford is a non-profit organisation and is owned by Bradford city council. Education Bradford is responsible for providing education support to young children.
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According to Harris and Butterworth (2002) "We can view adolescence as the period that most flexibly combines biological, social and historical factors" (p324) examine some of those factors and explain how they relate to the experience of adolescents in e
My final part will include the historical factors and implications of prejudices, as well as stereotypes. Stereotypes can have a very negative impact on adolescents and their experience of education and society. I then will conclude all my findings and compare them. Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood according to Sprinthall and Collins 1988:60. According to Sprinthall and Collins 1988:59 "adolescents is the period of the most intense and extensive biological changes since birth" This means that during adolescents a person will undergo more changes in the body than they have before. There are many biological factors that affect adolescents puberty is one.
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Passivity- This is when a child chooses not to do something, or withdraws themselves from a situation. Examples of this include: * Elective mutism * Withdrawal In the nursery at my first placement there was a girl who always played alone and if others tried to play with her or talk to her she would walk away. Special needs- Children with special needs that have emotional and/or social difficulties may show disruptive behaviour. "There are those children whose problems have an effect on themselves; and there are others whose problems are shown by the way they interact with other people."
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Fine motor skills: she can build a tower of ten or more cubes. Also she can copy a building pattern of three steps using six cubes or more. She can hold and use a pencil like an adult. She can draw a figure that represents a person showing head, hands, legs and body. She is also able to spread her hands, and can bring her thumbs into opposition with each finger in turn. Her intellectual development is good. She can match and name almost all of the colours and she listens to long stories with attention. She counting up to twenty by rote. She talks about things in the past and the future.
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First of all anyone who want to work with children must have a CRB (Criminal Record Bureau) check. Its aim is to help organisations in the public, private and voluntary sectors by identifying candidates who may be unsuitable to work with children or other vulnerable members of society. Then when a child is at school or goes on a school trip etc... Their parents must fill in a consent form to allow the child to go and to let the parent know what they are doing.
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to care for the victim or created a danger for the victim. Parameter of "Significant" risk 4. These are the three main parameters9, which the writer considers largely faulty, serving to define the scope of liability imposed by the new offence: 5. First, at the time of the unlawful act, there must be a significant risk of serious physical harm being caused to the victim by a member of the child's household who had frequent contact with the victim. The new offence requires the child to be at a certain high level of risk before it expects the active intervention by the defendant.
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How do Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of learning and development compare regarding the influences of social interactions in children's cognitive development?
Seeking a rapprochement between the two theories as Glassman (1999) did provides, in my view, a way forward for understanding children's cognitive development. My approach to understanding the role of social interaction in children's cognitive development is by using material from both theories in order to establish a non bias balance between the two. Piaget (1896-1980) was the father of the constructivist theory. He sought to explain the origins and the development of cognition in biological terms. He named this genre of study genetic epistemology (Oates et al. 2005). The constructivist theory, also known as the adaptation theory, involves three essential processes that participate in the child's cognitive development.
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The Anal stage is when a child aged 2 begins toilet training, the focus being on bladder and bowl movements. This is a time when the ID starts conflicting with the Ego and Superego. The child becomes obsessed with the erogenous zones of the anus realising their ability of retention and discharge, the conflict being between the parents and the child. A child may refuse to go to the bathroom and then excrete by a way of punishment to the parent.
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By the end of 1950s the success of IKEA's low prices was bothering Sweden's large furniture retailers who pressured manufacturers to not sell to IKEA. The company kept a few manufacturers who were often delivering during the night to avoid being seen. That is the reason why IKEA had to look abroad for manufacturers because it was impossible to meet demand with their actual situation. Kamprad contracted with factories in Poland and he soon realized that is was even more profitable to do so.
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Childhood and repression are major themes in both novels and the authors use characters to portray ideas of loss and grief within the story. In Peter Pan, Peter is used to represent the eternal child, never growing older and always remaining the same, but read deeper, he could symbolise the death of youth in all of us and the strange twisted reality that comes with it 'to die will be an awfully big adventure'. The only way anybody can avoid age and death is death itself and to evade that brings consequences 'he had ecstasies innumerable that other children can never know; but he was looking through the window at the one joy from which he must be forever barred'.
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Prisoners' families have been referred to as the forgotten victims of crime. Why should society be concerned to support such families? Describe the measure that you consider can best be used to offer this support.
There are increasing numbers of aid and support groups that represent and help the prisoners' families. The importance of the relationship between offenders and their family, especially their spouse, has been the subject of much research. The maintenance of good family ties has been recognised as one of the main factors that contribute to a prisoner's successful reintegration into society5. Though time within prison may have damaged his connections with his family a majority will wish to return to them once their sentence is over. There is much evidence that the family is a vital aspect in the prisoner's life and good connections influence the prisoner's life and behaviour6.
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Explore the authors approach to the character of Jim Hawkins in the Novel "treasure Island" by Robert Louis Stevenson.
"How that personage haunted my dreams," "I would see him in a thousand forms and with a thousand diabolical expressions." This is an imagination of a child. However not far into the story, Jim's father dies which leaves his mother and himself to look after the inn. He learns quickly that he has to look after his mother, as he has become the man of the house so although he is protected at the same time he becomes protective as he takes his fathers place.
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The aim of the observation was to see if the child was able to decenter through a present activity using the Sally-Anne Test in relation to Jean Piaget's stages
She gave both dolls a container and said "one for Sally, and one for Anne." A crayon was shown to child A and then placed in to Sally's container. Child A was told sally was going to the shops and sally was removed from sight. Child A constantly asks "where has Sally gone?" "Why she gone?" The doll named Anne quickly snatched Sally's crayon and put it into her own container. "Naughty Anne" child A said. Child A was asked "where will Sally look for her crayon when she comes back?" Child A picks up Anne's box and says "here".
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Separated by time, plot, and style, the autobiographies of the two Florentine natives show few ostensible similarities and tell two very different stories, but are nevertheless connected by one key factor: both offer profound insights into the intellectual and psychological development of their respective authors and reflect the prevalence of humanist influences in their author's lives. Through their autobiographies, Buonaccorso Pitti and Benvenuto Cellini, although unique in their aspirations and achievements, display the traits by which Burckhardt defines the uomo universale.
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"Compare at least four of the poems you have studied where parent child feelings are shown. Write about On My First Sonne, one poem by Carol Ann Duffy, one by Simon Armitage and one poem from the Pre-1914 bank."
This structure is similar to Before You Were Mine as it is also structured in a chronological way. The mother's life has been explored this way in each verse. Firstly, the mother's childhood has been mentioned, "Your polka-dot dress blows round your legs." Then in the second verse, the mother is an older dating teenager who falls in love "in the ballroom...I knew you would dance like that." Finally, the last verse describes her as a mother "...You'd teach me the steps on the way home from Mass."
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Critically discuss the assertion that the principles of transactional models of development help us to understand the causes o
Rather, through her interaction with these multiple environmental components, she has an effect on this environment which in turn helps to shape and determine her subsequent experiences, encounters and reactions in an endless, complex and multifaceted reciprocal cause and effect process. One example of this type of developmental transaction given in the literature2 would be when a young mother experiences complications in pregnancy, such as might result in the birth of a premature and physically under-developed baby. The premature baby could well spend her first few days, weeks or even months in an incubator, prohibiting the initial and immediate post-natal bonding (or imprinting)
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Describe how temperament has been defined and studied by developmental psychologists. With reference to relevant research and theory, discuss the relationship between children's temperament and their early development.
But as Rutter (1987)1 points out, "temperament" may better be thought of, in the abstract sense, as a concept signifying those consistent traits, or dispositions to act, displayed by the individual child over time, i.e. as general features of a child's early behavioural style. One assertion - proposed for example by Bates (1989)2 - is that these differences in temperament between children are biologically rooted; are present early in life; and are relatively stable across various kinds of situation and over the course of time.
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