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GCSE: Child Development

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  1. About Labour.

    The values Labour stands for today are those which have guided it throughout its existence. Our values: * social justice * strong community and strong values * reward for hard work * decency * rights matched by responsibilities Government is delivering on social services Thursday 13 November 2003 There has been a significant improvement in the performance of social service departments in England, according to star ratings published today by the Social Services Inspectorate (SSI). The star ratings, based on how well councils are delivering adult and children's services, show that: - of 150 councils, 60 per cent now have either two or three stars; 41 councils have a higher star rating than last year

    • Word count: 1105
  2. Of Nursing and Health.

    1. Walks with a mild waddling gait with accompanying lordosis. Demonstrates some problems in activities that require lifting the legs, such as stair climbing. 2. Walks with a moderate waddling gait with accompanying lordosis. Supportive assistance is required in activities that require the legs to be lifted. 3. Walks with a severe waddling gait and accompanying lordosis. Cannot climb stairs, even with assistive devices, and cannot rise from a chair. 4. Can move independently in the environment using a wheelchair. 5. Can move in the environment using a wheelchair but requires assistance for most wheelchair activities and in getting to and from the wheelchair.

    • Word count: 860
  3. Describe briefly the development of the Courts' approach to the idea of the duty of care from early case to

    The 'neighbour' principle was confirmed by the House of Lords in Hedley Byrne v. Heller (1964)5 as being a flexible test which could be applied in any situation. In this particular case the Lords applied a variant of the 'neighbour' principle to the special situation of pure economic loss. The 'neighbour' principle was based on reasonable foreseeability and proximity, and in Home Office v. Dorset Yacht Co. (1970)6 Lord Reid said it should apply in all cases unless some reason for its exclusion could be justified.

    • Word count: 2131
  4. The development of object permanence in infancy.

    It refers to the child's ability to understand that objects exist independently from the child. A child who possesses this ability is able to understand the fact that objects continue to exist even if they are not within her immediate sight (Jean Piaget, 2003). However, certain characteristics abound, which precede the attainment of object permanence in infants. Prominent among these is the solid basis of action. In other words, action is the most striking characteristic of human thinking during the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development (Bukatko and Daehler, 2003, p.274).

    • Word count: 2255
  5. The two views with regards to innate knowledge that both John Locke and Plato hold, are quite different. Locke shares the view that there is no such thing as innate knowledge, and that knowledge is obtained through experiences in one's life.

    John Locke was known as an Empiricist, and that meant he did not believe in innate knowledge. Locke feels that we are born as a Tabula Rosa or blank state, and that through our experiences do we gain knowledge. Locke felt that knowledge comes from experiences and more specifically, sensation and reflection. Examples of sensations would basically be the five senses, and reflections would be pure thoughts or feelings. Furthermore, primary ideas were designated as being physical objects and were designated as bulk, size, motion, figure and number.

    • Word count: 494
  6. Who Is This Most Powerful Character In The Scarlet Letter?

    Pearl is the most powerful character in the novel because she affects Hester Prynne and Arthur Dimmesdale significantly, though in very different ways. Pearl enables Hester to grow and become stronger but at the same time she destroys Dimmesdale. Pearl is an incredible character. "Many modern readers find Hester's elf-child intolerable arch, with her pranks and preternatural knowledge. She is indeed a remarkable infant, distinguished as much for her fidelity to the actual psychology of a three-year-old child as for the allegorism with which Hawthorne manipulates her strange behavior." (Hoffman 344). She is the problem and resolution of the novel.

    • Word count: 696
  7. The essence of a memoir is to look back at one's experience, and see how they have developed and matured.

    He spent all of the social security and inheritance on a nice house; they went out all the time; singing to song, making of people in the car, playing lots of frisbee at the beach. He seemed to drown out the sadness of the situation with their complimentary money. At this point, Dave's feelings still cannot escape him. "It's Friday night and I should be out, across the bay, I should be out every night with the rest of the young people, fixing my hair, spilling my beer, trying to get someone to touch my penis..

    • Word count: 1226
  8. Children, Parents and the State.

    Rights are important and have been called 'valuable commodities'3, important moral coinage. In Bandman's4 words, they 'enable us to stand with dignity, if necessary, to demand what is our due without having to grovel, plead or beg'. The international community has framed its much-lauded convention, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child especially article 125 and 136, which incorporated obligation to listen to children and take their views seriously, to recognise the child's personality and autonomy, England has its Gillick7 decision and Children Act 1989, which was characterised by the Lord Chancellor at the time as 'the most comprehensive and far-reaching reform of child law which has come before the

    • Word count: 3310
  9. Throughout my essay I am going to study and look at the work of five medical developers - Edward Jenner, James Simpson, Louis Pasteur, Florence Nightingale, Alexander Fleming.

    But despite all this Jenners work soon replaced the old methods. In the short term Jenners work was very successful, it mean that many people were saved from almost certain death if they caught smallpox. But in the long term his work lacked the knowledge and the ability to lead to any further understandance in medical development. It has also been discovered that Jenner was by no means the first person to use cowpox as a vaccine against smallpox. He had just merely followed up on previous work and developed it to a further point, so he was more of a developer than an inventor.

    • Word count: 3143
  10. International Child Abduction.

    in the country to which the child has been taken. NB - Child Abduction Act 1984 - Hague Convention - European Convention B. Preventing Abduction 1. The Child Abduction Act 1984 Section 1(1) of the Act presumptively makes it an offence for a parent to take or send the child abroad without obtaining the requisite consent. What amounts to requisite consent? [section 1(3)] But note also that the presumption of the offence is ousted in four situations: (a) if the person removing the child (i) has a residence order, (ii) removes the child for less than one month, and (iii)

    • Word count: 2125
  11. Critically discuss what psychologists have found out about cognitive psychology.

    Formal Operational (11-15years) Each stage of development is characterised by an overall structure and a sequence of development that occurs within this structure. According to Piagetian theory, these structures consist of "schemas", which are essentially, a way of organising experience. Schemas, (as Piaget believed) are the primary component of intelligent behaviour. These schemas adapt through a continuous process of "assimilation" and "accommodation," in an endeavour to attain "equilibrium". Which is essentially balance. Assimilation is the process of adapting new experiences to fit into existing schemas.

    • Word count: 1647
  12. Primary teachers.

    Progression refers to the need for children to build upon their existing knowledge, skills and understanding. Continuity and progression can be achieved through planning. Foundation Stage teachers need to use the Foundation curriculum and their existing knowledge of every single child to plan effectively. A well planned lesson will encourage the child to play that is emotionally, intellectually, physically and socially challenging. The planning should meet the needs of every single child in the class providing equal opportunities and it should be built on what the children already know and can do. (www.canteach.gov.uk) During school experience at the beginning of September 2002, the reception class teacher assessing each child.

    • Word count: 1085
  13. Identifying Data of Family.

    Carter & McGoldrick label the B's in the beginning of stage three of their family development (Friedman et al., 2003). Duvall's requirement to be in the second stage of family development is to have the "oldest child less than 30 months" of age (Friedman et al., 2003). Feldman's requirement is to have the "oldest child an infant" (Friedman et al., 2003). Rogers's requirement is to have "all children less than 36 months" of age (Friedman et al., 2003). Carter & McGoldrick's requirement is the family must have young children (Friedman et al., 2003).

    • Word count: 2563
  14. Pompeii - House of the Vettii.

    The house might have had a tablinum at one point but was probably altered in the middle of the 1st century, eliminating the tablinum, allowing visitors to pass directly into the peristyle from the atrium. (Guzzo, 1998: 59) "Although this was obviously an affluent household, the absence of the tablinum takes away that emphasis on social standing which characterized the "atrium houses" of the upper classes." (Guzzo, 1998: 63) This might indicate a trend away from the typical commercial role of the paterfamilias and the practice of the head of the household accepting the morning's clients waiting in the atrium.

    • Word count: 1902
  15. Critical Approach - Child development.

    I had to rely solely on Bethan's behaviorism to receive an effective critical analysis of her development, in comparison to an average child of a similar age. Nonetheless, I was lucky to have Bethan. Although she had her rare mood-wings and she occasionally took on the role of a reserved, shy child at the beginning of the majority of the visits, she was co-operative and pleasurable company. During the visits, she would happily chat to me about her day in school and her brother's development, using a Singaporean accent developed from her local playgroup.

    • Word count: 1605
  16. Unforeseen Consequences.

    As the parents are often involved in many social gatherings, Harry is often left on the sidelines. He is been entrusted with an external figure, this being his babysitter, who provides his basic needs, in which he hardly receives at home. At home, he takes care of his own self. He makes his own meals, as no one is willing to do it for him. In this story it is clear that Harry's parents are not prepared to foster a child. Harry has not been given any direction from his parents. The behavior of his parents can be described as egocentric and selfish.

    • Word count: 1152
  17. In 1989 I began to attend St James' Primary School in Wakefield.

    The decision was not easy, as I had attained particularly high grades in all of these subjects. Eventually I decided upon History, Child Development, Spanish and also to take the sciences Biology, Chemistry and Physics separately as I was one of the selected few offered this privilege. Accompanying these options were the core subjects of Mathematics, English Language and English Literature. The subject courses I chose were selected because I enjoyed the subjects and also excelled in them. Another reason was that I felt I could pursue a career in one of these fields. I do not have a single favourite subject, but I do enjoy science, English, Child Development and History as I have a strong interest in these areas.

    • Word count: 758
  18. The Ethics of Embryology.

    Although saving lives is a valid point, scientists in the U.S.A. have proved that stem cells can be taken from adults, willing to donate, which would do exactly the same as the embryonic stem cells. This means that the use of embryos, in this case, is now out-dated and completely unnecessary. Those arguing for would also say that the research conducted using embryos and the artificial creation of embryos, is not only about saving lives, but also about improving individuals' quality of life from the moment of birth.

    • Word count: 1251
  19. Show how Roddy Doyle in "Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha" explores the darker side of childhood.

    From the beginning, the structure of the novel is consistent. There are usually fairly short paragraphs and no chapters. Direct speech is given without use of speech marks. All these factors result in the story mimicking the thought processes of a child. The absence of speech marks means the transition from Paddy's account of events to speech which takes place is quick and flowing. The end of one paragraph, for example, "I rocked the pram the way she always did it," often leads to a rapid change in subject in the beginning of the next paragraph-"We lit fires.

    • Word count: 987
  20. A child's early years are widely considered to be crucial to its development, and that environment plays a large part.

    His studies were flawed to some extent as not everybody that is deemed to be affectionless has necessarily come from a deprived background and indeed this is highlighted in work by Tizard (1977).His research showed that children, institutionalised up until the ages of six or seven, were able to form good quality relationships with their adopters, and that their emotional development had merely been in suspension. Having been exposed to multiple caregivers, they had not formed attachments with one individual and were therefore, suffering from maternal deprivation.

    • Word count: 1286
  21. Comment on a person who has had a personal influence on your life and show who the person is.

    She was a very caring child and a responsible family member. She also went on a beautician course where she learned how to make and do henna. Henna is patterns you draw on your hands with a dye. There is a process in which to make the natural dye. People mainly put it on when they are getting married, but these days, people put it on for fun. She also learned how to get an Indian bride ready by doing her make-up, hairstyles, henna, and putting the sari on the bride.

    • Word count: 1109
  22. Monsieur d'Hubières suggestion puts the Vallins in a difficult position. Were they right to behave as they did?

    been a substantial amount of money, and considering the state both the families were living in, it would be a useful sum too. As soon as the offer was made it would have been very tempting, with the fact that their son would get a good up bringing, a good education, and become a rich man when he was older. The pros of selling their son were so strong you would be mad to resist them. But even so, the Tuvaches refused the offer that was offered to them.

    • Word count: 1026
  23. Social Services - Children and family.

    They have a team manager, two senior practitioners, a number of social workers and a number of admin staff. They deal with all people as they are first contact with social services. They deal with all section 17 cases and all child protection cases ( section 47). They hold cases for upto three months, (keep all responsibilities), then they get transferred to the long term team. Section 17- Local authorities to services to children and families. Under section 17 local authorities have a general duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children in need and so far as consistent with that duty, promote the upbringing of such children by their families by providing services appropriate to their needs.

    • Word count: 1713
  24. "No one is born evil. No one."

    Once, a man passing by heard Tulip swearing at Natalie so foully, he stopped to stare. Tulip made Natalie run up and down the street until her face was really sticky and burning. Tulip was also very cruel to Natalie's friends as well, She use to always stamp on their games even if she was playing and she lost or if she was not playing. Tulip is very stubborn girl too. Tulip makes Natalie feel uncomfortable. Tulip is sometimes sarcastic to Natalie too.

    • Word count: 970
  25. The Power of Child Death.

    I can't bear to look at the others" (238). She feels like a disgrace to society, as if everyone shames her for accidentally drowning her baby. She tells Rabbit that they can not live at their house anymore. Rabbit acts differently. At the funeral Rabbit listens to the service and finds forgiveness and strength to move on, but then at the burial he clumsy made statements about the child's death. Rabbit says he played no role in the death of the child, and this shocks others.

    • Word count: 890

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