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Describe and discuss the major theories of physical, social and emotional development of children form three to eight years.

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Introduction

Major theories 1 Describe and discuss the major theories of physical, social and emotional development of children form three to eight years. A child begins to develop whilst in the mothers womb. The genetics ( the makeup) of the child are already in place. The child inherits genes from both mother and father. Piaget was probably one of most influential cognitive theorists. Piaget was a constructivist which means basically that learning occurs from actions rather than as a result of actions. Cognition generally refers to any intellectual process within the human experience. These processes include, attention the ability to focus, perception the individual interpretation, memory, thinking and problem solving. Constructivists or Cognitivists believe development is the 'process by which individuals acquire a more sophisticated and complex knowledge of the world around them.' It deals with the mental activity within the brain and the formation of concepts. The knowledge is acquired by doing rather than being given information. ...read more.

Middle

Paiget outlined four stages of development, the Sensori-motor period, the pre-operational preiod, the concrete-opational period and the formal-operatioanl period. In the first two stages piaget noted that children can only consider things form their own point of view and cannot see that others may hold different view. This could explain how young children do not accept another's point of view and are unable to sort out arguments between peers. The stages control development which in turn control learning. Les Vygotsky (1869 - 1935) had similar theories to Piaget. He also saw an adult role as important in children's learning. His theories accepted that a child learns actively by using the information in the environment but looks towards a more social setting for learning. Vygotsky believed that 'The same biological or environmentao factors may have very different effects, depending on the people among whom a child grows up' (Oates, 1996) He believed strongly that language had an important part to play in a childs learning, and that interaction between a child and others in their community was hugely beneficial to a child's language development. ...read more.

Conclusion

Gardner born 1943, believed intelligence is made up of multiple intelligences. His theory states humans have a unique blend of intelligences that cannot be measured by IQ tests. He challenged Piagets development stages. Unlike Piaget, Gardner saw that at any one time a child may be at very different stages. Gardner formulated a list of seven intelligences. The first two particularly valued in schools. The following three usually associated with the arts and the last two personal intelligences. 1. Linguistic 2. Logical - mathematical 3. Musical 4. Kinesthetic 5. Spacial intelligence 6. Interpersonal intelligence 7. Intrapersonal intelligence Chomsky Chomsky believed humans have an inate facility for language, that humans are pre-progammed to develop language. This theory was originally described as LAD (language acquisition Device) His theories follow, language is uniquely human, we have a desire to express ourselves. Language is a natural inate maturation which could only be stopped due to disability such as hearing impairment or a vocal disability. Author Date title Publisher Place Green, S 2002 BTEC National Early Years Nelson Cheltenham Oates, J 1996 The Foundations of Childhood Development Blackwell Oxford http://www.tes.co.uk/section/story/?section=Archive&sub_section=News+%26+ opinion&story_id=398249&Type=0 accessed 23/05/05 http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm accessed 23/05/05 ...read more.

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