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Developmental Psychology.

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Introduction

Developmental Psychology a) Outline the development of attachments (e.g. Schaffer) Schaffer and Emerson discovered the phases in the development of an attachment. These are, 0-2 months, which is the pre-attachment stage. At this stage infants produce similar responses to all objects. They begin to show a greater preference for social stimuli, such as smiling and they are more content when they are with people. 2-7 months is the 'Attachment in the making' stage. This is where infants become more social and they prefer human company and can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. Strangers can easily comfort them and they have an overall general sociability. 7-24 months, is the specific/clear cut attachments (separation protest and stranger anxiety.) At this stage the infants show uneasiness with strangers and put up protest when they are left alone. 8 months, is the Multiple attachment stage and at this stage they develop a wide circle of attachments. ...read more.

Middle

c) Psychologists are divided in the extent to which they see day care as beneficial to a child's development. To what extent does day care have a beneficial effect on cognitive and/or social development? Cognitive development concerns the growth of the child thinking abilities. There are several factors that may cause delays in cognitive development. Social Development refers to the growth of social behaviours such as the ability to form attachments develops healthy self esteem and form appropriate relationships. The potential effects of day care on social and cognitive development and then we can consider how day care could be improved to avoid possible negative effects. There have been many research studies to see whether day care has a beneficial affect on cognitive and social development. Andersson and Mayall and Petrie did these studies. Andersson conducted a study of the effects of day care in Sweden. ...read more.

Conclusion

The other explanation is possibly due to the childcare environment. The research showed that the children often spent the day in an under stimulated environment lacking love and attention. It can be seen that that day care may be damaging because of the separation from the child's primary caregiver. Some day care experiences can lack stimulation and attachment opportunities, but in general the cognitive and social development did not seem to be affected and some children may even benefit, due to maybe lacking certain opportunities at home. Children in day care appear to be as securely attached to their primary caregivers as those who are at home full time. However children who are insecurely attached benefit more from day care. In conclusion this states that it cannot be said that day care is good or bad in terms of cognitive and social development. The effects can be related to other circumstances in the child's life and in some situations day care may even be positively beneficial. Mrs Evans Rebecca Johnson 12A ...read more.

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