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Discussing psychologist perspectives and their use in Health and Social Care.

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Introduction

D1 All psychologist perspectives can be used in Health and Social Care. In this essay I will be discussing each one, telling you about the strength and weaknesses in the perspectives and how they can be applied. Behaviourist- This perspective is based on observable changes in behaviour. Behaviourism focuses on a new behavioural pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic- one person that used this method through classical conditioning (learning by association) was Pavlov (1849-1936). His use of this perspective in a positive view would be it showed that if you repeat something so many times it becomes a routine for a person or it becomes more bearable for them- this can be used in health and social care if a patient has a phobia, say of needles they then could show them other people getting their blood taken and after so long it would become bearable for them to see needles and in time have their blood taken themselves. In a more negative view of it, people could see it as more traumatic way of approaching things, placing someone in a situation they don't want to be in just so they can adjust to the routine of finding something tolerable. ...read more.

Middle

His theory was based on the psychodynamics study of the interrelationship of various parts of the mind, personality or psyche as they relate to mental, emotional or motivational forces especially at the unconscious level. The positive points to this theory would be its ability to help people to deal with hard situations through therapy with the use of ego defensive mechanism. The negative points to this theory would be the price, it's a very expensive treatment that many people would not be able to afford, and it is also very time consuming. Many people could also see Freud's approach as sexual, with the intimate questions and the sexual assumptions that many people would find disturbing. Also Freud's theory is a lot about looking into a person's childhood to see where it started it from but not all problems begin from childhood. Using the ego defence mechanism this perspective can be used in health and social care, the person working in health and social care can help a patient deal with their illness if they can't accept it. Humanistic- The two psychologists associated with this perspective are Abraham Maslow (1943) ...read more.

Conclusion

Biological- This perspective is about the view of personality that focuses on the way behaviour and personality are influenced by neuro-anatomy, biochemistry, genetics or evolution. This perspective also helps people understand how and why we have a certain diseases. The positives to this approach; the more we know about the brain, the more we should be able to explain how we operate and to understand what makes us 'tick'. Also the main strength to the biological approach is that chemotherapy, ECT and psychosurgery can be used to treat the symptoms of abnormal behaviour directly and in a very short time. The negatives to this approach are the risk of side effects- e.g. in case of chemotherapy there is the risk that patients may become psychologically and physically dependent on the drugs involved. Symptoms often recur when the treatment stops, so many patients have to be re-admitted to hospital. It also raises serious ethical issues. Other things people look upon as negative is the fact that it's hard to determine the extent to which genetic inheritance influences behaviour. This perspective can be used in health and social care through the use of developmental norms, this means making sure that a young child is developing properly, so that their behaviour and understanding matches that if their chronological age. ...read more.

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