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Evaluate a chosen perspective relating to child development. Compare this perspective with others and apply them to a chosen childhood setting.

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Introduction

Evaluate a chosen perspective relating to child development. Compare this perspective with others and apply them to a chosen childhood setting. Psychology is the science of behaviour. It looks at thought, feelings and images. Biological, environmental and psychological factors are elements of behaviour. (See appendix 1) The goals of psychology are to understand, describe, control and predict certain behaviour in particular circumstances. Biological, psychodynamic, behavioural, cognitive, humanistic and sociocultural are perspectives on behaviour. The humanistic approach is known as the "third force" founded by Abraham Maslow. The first and second are behaviourism, and psychoanalysis, derived from the early work of Sigmund Freud. Humanism states the most important aspect of human psychology is how they achieve their sense of self and actualise their potential. It has four main concepts: responsibility, the 'here and now', phenomenology, and personal growth. I will be focusing on the humanistic approach in relation to a primary school setting. Comparing this perspective with others. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), a key theorist of the humanistic approach believes that human functioning is holistic, i.e. looking at the whole self. The needs and motivation of a person is reflected upon individual personal experiences. Maslow stated: "a good life is a process, not a state of being". He is known for his 'Hierarchy of Needs'. ...read more.

Middle

Neo humanism promotes continuity in relation to regional cultures. Neo-humanism proposes that creative experiences are important in supportive learning of culture. Each classroom has its own learning culture that is a result of the relationship between the teacher and the child. http://nhe.gurukul.edu/trans.html. Like neo-humanism the sociocultural perspective looks at the manner in which culture is transmitted to its members and the similarities and differences between children within the same culture. It emphasises individualism and self identity. For example, two children from an Asian culture can be very different in their personalities. (See Appendix 3) http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/r/a/rah25/Assets/PSY002/Chap001_Notes.ppt Socioculturalists believe that child's growth is emphasised by their values, goals and expectations of their culture. Developmental abilities may differ for children in different cultures. http://encrta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557692_2/Child_Development.html In psychology 'gender' is a term usually referred to in a social and cultural aspect. In contrast the term 'sex' is usually referred to in a biological sense, whereas societies stereotype in terms of gender. Practitioners and peers treat girls differently to that of boys. Children's' knowledge about sex and gender role expectations develop quite early. This usually occurs under the age of three. Part of gender role development is that girls' and boys internalise sex stereotypes. Schools play a major part in gender appropriate behaviour and appearance as well as the media. ...read more.

Conclusion

Jerome Bruner (born 1915) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) saw the child as an apprentice. They believe that 'lone' learning is not enough and the child should be helped through peers and adults. The child is active in learning as in the humanistic approach. In relation to the nature/nurture debate the psychodynamic and cognitive approaches compare with humanism. They all believe that behaviour is a result from nature and nurture. They all state that behaviour is both an interaction between the person and environment and that we have inborn motive and drive. However the behaviourist approach is against the humanistic approach. Behaviourism states it is nurture that effects our behaviour. http://www.learningmatters.co.uk/sampleChapters/pdfs/introductory%20chap%202.pdf Poverty can have an effect on a child's psychological development and their personal growth. Bryan Egeland, Alan Sroufe and Andrew Collins of the Institute of Child Development are researching a parent-child project. It is a longitudinal study that looks at poverty as a risk factor in the development of children. A way of reducing negative effects of poverty is a stable early relationship between the parent and child. This promotes the child's personal growth. http://education.umn.edu/research/ResearchWorks/Parent-Child.htm In conclusion all theories have their advantages and limitations. For example, Piaget's theory is helpful in explaining a child's cognitive development. Whereas Banduras cognitive social learning theory helps explain a child's social development. The understanding of normal child development detects difficulties in the emotional, physical, social and cognitive. This enables teachers to prevent and treat these problems in the school setting. http://web.mala.bc.ca/education/Courses/EDPB503/THEORETICAL_PERSPECTIVES_RUBRIC. ...read more.

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