• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

explain the 5 main areas of childrens development

Extracts from this document...


Child Psychology and Development There are 5 main areas of children's development; Physical, Intellectual, Language, Emotional and Social (PILES) * Physical Development Physical Development "Refers to a child's control over his/her muscles, his/her coordination, his/her ability to sit, stand, and eventually to walk and run. It also refers to his/her manipulative abilities" Many theorists have many different views on physical development. Physical development includes 2 major areas; Fine motor skills and Gross Motor skills. Gross motor skills tend to develop first with fine motor skills coming later working from the centre and over time, moving out towards the fingers. * Intellectual Development Intellectual development can also be referred to as cognitive development. Many theorists have many different views on intellectual development. For example, Piaget believes it happens in 4 stages over a certain period of time starting from the earliest stage of 0 years up to adolescence. Lev Vygotsky's concept contradicts this, as he believes the development process that begins at birth and continues until death. Charles Darwin believes children's cognitive skills are built over the years and to begin with, they start with a blank canvas that is developed slowly over time through nature and nurture. ...read more.


* Emotional Development This is very much linked into social development. From a very early age it is important for children to feel socially accepted and emotionally stable. Young children, especially babies need a bond with a person in order to effectively develop. John Bowlby devised the theory of Attachment. Theorists also believe young children go through stages of anxiety and separation especially seen in very young children when separated from carers and loved ones Theories to explain Child Development There are many theoretical approaches to children's development. Social Constructivists Approach The first approach to child development is the social constructivist's view. Social constructivists view learning as a social process. Examples of social constructivists are Bruner, Vygotsky and Bandura. Vygotsky developed the concept of the ZPD or Zone of Proximal Learning. The ZPD is the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do without guidance. (Vygotsky, L. S. 1978) "He observed that when children were tested on tasks on their own, they rarely did as well as when they were working in collaboration with an adult" (http://www.ncrel.org). ...read more.


Watson Watson's work was based on the experiments of Ivan Pavlov, who had studied animals' responses to conditioning. In Pavlov's best-known experiment, he rang a bell as he fed dogs several meals. Each time the dogs heard the bell they knew that a meal was coming. This caused them to salivate. Pavlov then rang the bell without bringing food, but the dogs still salivated. They had been "conditioned" to salivate at the sound of a bell. Pavlov believed that humans react to stimuli in the same way. Skinner developed the theory of "operant conditioning," the idea that we behave the way we do because this kind of behaviour has had certain consequences in the past. There are two types of conditioning: Classic conditioning - This occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. The most popular example is Pavlov's observation as mentioned above. Operant conditioning - This occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. If a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus, then the response becomes more probable in the future. B.F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to get rats in a cage to press a lever, which in turn, then released food pellets. "A behaviour followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behaviour occurring in the future" (B.F. Skinner www.bfskinner.org) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Child Development section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Child Development essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the development theories of Piaget, Bruner and Vygotsky

    4 star(s)

    Egocentric thinking predominates. Concrete Operational Stage (Elementary and Early Adolescence) - in this stage (characterised by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects.

  2. Child development

    the pregnancy where the mother and father can bond with their child. I think that routine tests are the most important tests because they are carried out on all pregnant women and are more regular. The routine tests that I found were: uterus test, urine test, blood test, height and weight test and blood pressure testing.

  1. Health, Social Care and Early years provisions.

    If the residents were either assigned to a member of staff and a current resident before they move in, then when they actually move in to the housing with care then they will have a familiar face or two. This might mean that the whole experience is slightly less intimidating than before.


    They enjoy a mobile held above there cots, and bright shining or contrast patterns around for them to look at. 1- 6 month old Physical development. Babies of a month old seem to be less curled up and spend more time awake during the day and could be sleeping through the night.

  1. Health and Social care

    If a family is on very low income or even receive income support, they may find it difficult to afford the surgery's fees and charges. This will put increasing pressure on families who cannot afford to have their family members treated in the appropriate way.

  2. Development through the life stages

    They will understand at least 6,000 words. They put words into categories now. They can now guess what object attribute or use of clues for example, ?what bounces?? They repeat the days of the week, they can define words and ask for what the meaning of a word is, they act out stories that are being read

  1. Cach L2 unit 4. Childrens Play

    and gains experience, later when he/she turns 3 years, he/she uses that experience and will start riding a bike. Piaget felt that children would need to have experience of different materials, equipment and activities so that they could form their own ideas.

  2. Describe Human Development from Conception to birth

    At 37 weeks babies are still developing by putting more weight on and developing on their strength for when it is time to be conceived. Once week 39 has arrived the babies internal organs have vastly developed and perfected. At this point some babies have an easy birth by positioning

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work