• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

explain the 5 main areas of childrens development

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Child Psychology and Development There are 5 main areas of children's development; Physical, Intellectual, Language, Emotional and Social (PILES) * Physical Development Physical Development "Refers to a child's control over his/her muscles, his/her coordination, his/her ability to sit, stand, and eventually to walk and run. It also refers to his/her manipulative abilities" Many theorists have many different views on physical development. Physical development includes 2 major areas; Fine motor skills and Gross Motor skills. Gross motor skills tend to develop first with fine motor skills coming later working from the centre and over time, moving out towards the fingers. * Intellectual Development Intellectual development can also be referred to as cognitive development. Many theorists have many different views on intellectual development. For example, Piaget believes it happens in 4 stages over a certain period of time starting from the earliest stage of 0 years up to adolescence. Lev Vygotsky's concept contradicts this, as he believes the development process that begins at birth and continues until death. Charles Darwin believes children's cognitive skills are built over the years and to begin with, they start with a blank canvas that is developed slowly over time through nature and nurture. ...read more.

Middle

* Emotional Development This is very much linked into social development. From a very early age it is important for children to feel socially accepted and emotionally stable. Young children, especially babies need a bond with a person in order to effectively develop. John Bowlby devised the theory of Attachment. Theorists also believe young children go through stages of anxiety and separation especially seen in very young children when separated from carers and loved ones Theories to explain Child Development There are many theoretical approaches to children's development. Social Constructivists Approach The first approach to child development is the social constructivist's view. Social constructivists view learning as a social process. Examples of social constructivists are Bruner, Vygotsky and Bandura. Vygotsky developed the concept of the ZPD or Zone of Proximal Learning. The ZPD is the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do without guidance. (Vygotsky, L. S. 1978) "He observed that when children were tested on tasks on their own, they rarely did as well as when they were working in collaboration with an adult" (http://www.ncrel.org). ...read more.

Conclusion

Watson Watson's work was based on the experiments of Ivan Pavlov, who had studied animals' responses to conditioning. In Pavlov's best-known experiment, he rang a bell as he fed dogs several meals. Each time the dogs heard the bell they knew that a meal was coming. This caused them to salivate. Pavlov then rang the bell without bringing food, but the dogs still salivated. They had been "conditioned" to salivate at the sound of a bell. Pavlov believed that humans react to stimuli in the same way. Skinner developed the theory of "operant conditioning," the idea that we behave the way we do because this kind of behaviour has had certain consequences in the past. There are two types of conditioning: Classic conditioning - This occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. The most popular example is Pavlov's observation as mentioned above. Operant conditioning - This occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. If a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus, then the response becomes more probable in the future. B.F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to get rats in a cage to press a lever, which in turn, then released food pellets. "A behaviour followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behaviour occurring in the future" (B.F. Skinner www.bfskinner.org) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Child Development section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Child Development essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the development theories of Piaget, Bruner and Vygotsky

    4 star(s)

    allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbolic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage. Pre-operational Stage (Toddler and Early Childhood) - in this period (which has two sub-stages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a non-logical, non-reversible manner.

  2. Child development

    This is also a diagnostic test. It can tell you for certain whether your baby has Down's syndrome or another genetic abnormality or spine bifida. Positives and Negatives of Testing There are many positives and negatives in all different types of testing.

  1. Free essay

    Child Development

    John accepted this and proceeded to go upstairs. When John returned to the living room he asked his mother if he could have an apple as he was hungry, and asked to have the skin taken off. He walked about the room eating his apple holding it in his right hand occasionally putting it down to pick up a toy.

  2. How do Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of learning and development compare regarding the influences ...

    - X7374356 TMA 01 Essay importance of letting children learn on their own. When infants acquire a social transmission that challenges their established schemes disequilibrium sets in. The child thus sets out in a pursuit for answers in order to reach a state of equilibrium again.

  1. Health, Social Care and Early years provisions.

    This subsequently will mean that they are providing a better service which is more seamless than before. Another issues which is important to consider when providing a seamless service is the fact the Fouger's house is shutting down and the residents are moving to the new housing with care - Lakenfield.

  2. Development through the life stages

    They will count to 10, and when they go over it a lot they will start counting and won?t stop. By the age of five the child should now be able to, listen briefly to what others are saying. They will understand at least 6,000 words.

  1. Child development study - I will compare my visits and look at Aroushs development ...

    and, about this time, they?ll begin to take an interest in going up and down stairs. Sometimes a child of 16 months may feel upset and have tantrums; however this is seen as normal. (http://www.babycentre.co.uk/toddler/development /monthbymonth /16months/ ) Aim For this visit, I would like to go somewhere outside with Aroush, like to the shops.

  2. Describe Human Development from Conception to birth

    Due to the fact it is filled and contained with blood the penis becomes rigid and erect and this allows for penetration during intercourse. During erection the penis changes size so the skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate the change.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work