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''Explain what is meant by Child Directed Speech and consider the role it plays in Language Development.''

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Introduction

Child Directed Speech: ''Explain what is meant by Child Directed Speech and consider the role it plays in Language Development.'' Matt Jardine. What is Child Directed Speech? It is the theory of language development of young children aged between 1 year old and 4 years old. There are three key features in the development of child speech: Phonological: * Speak slower, clearer pronunciation * More pauses, especially between phrases and sentences * Higher pitch * Exaggerated intonation and stress Lexis: * Simpler, more restricted vocabulary * Diminutive forms (e.g. 'doggie') * Concrete language, referring to objects in the child's immediate environment Grammar: * Simpler constructions * Frequent use of imperatives * High degree of repetition * Frequent questions * Use of personal names instead of pronouns (e.g. 'Mummy' not 'I'). The effects of child speech; phonological development is used as a way to progressively build up a child speech development, simple constructions and vocabulary gradually increase a child's need to speak. Slow speech and exaggerated tones of voice become less demanding and more interesting for a child to hear. ...read more.

Middle

} } Biological Molecule. Lennenberg } Lennenberg's theory (L.A.D.) - Language Acquisition Device. Linguistic Universals * Deepstructure * Surface Structure However, there are criticisms behind this theory: 1) Suggests that language can only be learned by exposure to it - neglects interactive aspects. 2) Bard and Sachs (1977) - Jim - Son of deaf parents, - The parents used very little sign language to communicate with him, instead, exposed him to television and radio, to develop and understand language, however, very little language at all was developed until, he was sent to a speech therapist where a gradual progress of speech was accomplished. So how is speech is developed? Speech has many theories of how that it can be learnt from, hearing the family speak, repetion and reinforcement, encouragement to speak with imitations and gestures and also development in the brain. Is it possible to learn more than one language at one time? Theories also suggest that babies acclimatise to sounds of native language before birth, ''In the womb babies are acclimatised to sounds of native language before birth...'' ...read more.

Conclusion

Later developed by W.O. Grady, in 1996, known as 'Contemporary Linguistics'. Also he founded: Entitles - Names of people, foods, places, animals, vehicles, clothes, toys, etc. Properties - Hot, cold, nice, nasty, dirty, etc. Actions - Yes, no, up, down, etc. Personal/Social Interaction - hello, goodbye, please, thank you. But what is missing? - The functional words which bind these contemporary linguistic features together. One word Stage - (1 yr - 18mths) Holophrases, > Conveys a more complex message, accompanied by intonation and gesture. Two Word Stage - (18mths - 24 mths) > ''Mummy Read!'' Subj Verb ''Draw Doggie'' Verd Obj ''Suzy juice '' Subj Obj ''Daddy busy'' Subj Comp. All of the above sentences contain some sequence of grammatical structure. Also these words are all assembled in the correct grammatical order. However function words are usually ommited. Use of intonation/gesture needed to know how the sentences are to be expressed, whether they are commands, visual observation etc. Research in 1973 by Bloom observed that sentences can be used to express more than one meaning. Caused by missing inflectional affixes. ...read more.

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