Growth and development from conception to the final stages (PIES)
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Growth and Development from Conception to the Final Stages. Conception Human life begins with conception. A fertile woman usually produces one egg cell each month, roughly two weeks after the last menstrual period. The egg cell travels from the ovary, along the fallopian tube towards the uterus. If sexual intercourse takes place while the egg is in the fallopian tube, then there is a possibility that a new life will be started. Millions of sperm are ejaculated by a man during orgasm. Just one sperm may fertilise the egg. Fertilisation means that the genetic material in the sperm joins with the genetic material in the egg to start a new life. Only about half of all fertilised eggs develop to become babies. Many eggs are lost without a woman knowing that fertilisation ever happened. Pregnancy Pregnancy begins when a sperm penetrates an egg. One to one- and- a- half days after this single fertilised egg cell begins to divide. After two or three days there are enough new cells to make a fertilised egg the size of a pin head. This collection of cells travels to the lining of the uterus where it becomes anchored. The developing collection of cells is now called an embryo - it is attached to the wall of the uterus by a placenta. Once the embryo is attached to the uterus wall, a chemical signal stops the woman from having another menstrual period.
Around 4 years, children begin to use clear sentences that can be understood by strangers. Children can be expected to make some mistakes with grammar ' I met lots of children's at school today.' 5 years onwards, children can speak using full adult grammar. Although vocabulary will continue to grow, and formal grammar will continue to improve, most children can be expected to use language effectively by the age of 5. Emotional Children use their imagination to begin to understand the social roles that other people play. Children begin to imagine a 'me' - an idea of themselves. Relationships with other family members may influence how a child feels. Also the way a child gets on with teachers and friends may influence their self-confidence. The child might develop a permanent sense of confidence or a sense of failure and inferiority Social Young children are emotionally attached and dependent on the adults that care for them. Children begin to learn social roles and behaviour within their family context. This is called first or primary socialisation. A family environment might provide a 'safe base' from which to explore social relationships with other children through play. Children will learn to co-operate with other children (co-operate play). As children grow older they will become increasingly independent and begin to form friendships based on a sense of mutual trust.
to an increased risk of hypothermia, muscles in the digestive tract can become weaker creating a risk of constipation, the heart is less efficient at pumping blood, blood pressure can rise, nutrients from food are not absorbed as well as in earlier life, breathing can become less efficient because respiratory muscles are weaker, gas exchange in the lungs becomes impaired as the elastic walls of the small air pockets called alveoli become damaged, body metabolism is reduced due to lowered performance of the endocrine glands. These physical changes do not come about because we 'wear out'. If you take regular exercise, you may expect to live longer and stay healthier than people who do not. The physical changes associated with ageing may come about because cells start to make damaged and imperfect copies after a genetically programmed limit of cell renewal has been reached. It seems that there is a limit to the number of times each body cell can renew itself effectively. Language/ Intellectual As we get older our memory deteriorates. And we start to forget things. Emotional At this age older people may have to cope with the death of close friends, siblings and they're partner. Also they will start to have grandchildren and will form close attachments to them. Social Elderly people will learn to bond with the new arrivals in their family. Events where they will meet other people, will become more and more important to them.
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