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Health and Human Deveopment revision notes.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

HHD EXAM REVISION NOTES HEALTH: "A state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Physical Health- State of the physical body (eg. Physical fitness, degree of energy, resistance to disease, efficient functioning of body organs and maintenance of appropriate weight to height.) - Influenced by Genetics and Lifestyle Factors. Emotional Health- how an individual feels about themselves. - Ability to function and cope with everyday life. - Adapt to a range of demands - Make appropriate decisions - Self Confidence and Self Esteem - Ability to know and express emotions Social Health- Interaction between people. - Establishing good quality relationships - Communicating with others. - Behaving in socially appropriate ways. DEVLOPMENT: Systematic changes starting at conception and ending at death. Principles of Development: > Development is Lifelong- Potential to change is all the time - build on human capabilities > Involves Heredity and the Environment- differences/variations because of Genetics. -Different experiences and DNA > Proceeds in Multiple directions- always proceeds from a general response to a specific response. - Cephalocaudal Dev- head to foot - Proximodistal Dev- inner to outer - Predictable pattern of changes and continuities > Humans are active in their own dev (plasticity) - individuals take control of themselves - Create own environment and influence those around them > Is multidimensional- Physical, social and mental changes - Growth- increase in size and structure Physical Development- Structural Changes -growth, changes, increase in complexity associated with organs, muscles and glands. - Motor Dev (Fine and Gross). - Development/decline of body's systems - Proximodistal Development (Middle to outer) - Cephalocaudal (head to feet) Social Development- socialisation (the process of attaining values, morals, attitudes and beliefs. - developing social and communication skills - developing relationships - Personal identity - Intimacy and care giving - Social roles and expectations - Learnt through: observation, interaction, rewards, sanctions, imitation, modelling, being 'told'. ...read more.

Middle

-Include lean meat, fish, poultry -Include milk, yoghurt, cheese (reduced fat) -Drink plenty of water -Limit saturated fat -Choose foods low in salt -Limit alcohol Intake -Moderate consumption of sugar -Prevent weight gain - Care for your food - Encourage breastfeeding ADG for children and adolescents: -Growth should be check regularly and P.A reg too. -Eat plenty of v/l/f -Eat plenty of cereals, preferably wholegrain. -Include lean meat, fish, poultry -Include milk, yoghurt, cheese -Choose water to drink no alcohol -Limit sat.fat -Choose foods low in salt -Consume mod. Amounts of sugars. ADG for older Australians: -Variety of nutritious foods -Keep active to maintain body weight -East at least 3 meals a day -Prepare and store food correctly - Eat plenty of v/l/f - Eat plenty of cereals, preferably wholegrain. - v sat. fat. -Drink adequate amounts of water -Choose v salt. -Include foods high in calcium -Use added sugars in moderation Eat Well Australia > Public Health Nutrition Strategy > Endorsed by the Australian Health Ministers and released by SIGNAL (a Gov nutrition group > Contains two areas: the Indigenous Population and the Australian Population as a whole. > To address the NHPAs > Links to Public Strategies eg. The National Breastfeeding Strategy, The national Alcohol Strategy OBJECTIVES: > Support health gains in the context of the NHPA > Improve the capacity of Australians to choose a healthy diet in line with the AGHE and ADG > Target major health issues: o/o 3 Headings: 1. Health GAIN > Promoting the consumption of v/f > Promoting Healthy weight > Promoting Good nutrition for mothers and infants > Promoting food nutrition for school aged children > Improving nutrition for vulnerable groups > Addressing structural barriers to safe and healthy food 2. Capacity building ( dev of Knowledge, practises and people needed to implement) > Investing in public Health and nutrition research > Improving the effectiveness of interventions > Building human resource capacity > Communicating with the people. ...read more.

Conclusion

POVERTY > Poor Quality Housing > Limited or no working facilities > Little or no heating > Inadequate or no bathroom > No water connected to premises > Low incomes > Inadequate food > Inadequate clothing > Lack of transport Results in poor or ill health- Ill health then perpetuates poverty. Causes of poverty: Political Debt, Colonial rule, Historical, Trade, Conflict. 2. CONFLICT > Death > Disabilities > Genocide (mass killings) > Mutilations > Attack PHC systems and damages health services > Destroys infrastructure > Breaks down Govt. Systems. > � $ spent on war so v money spent on education and PHC. > Disruption to agriculture and manufacturing > Causes poverty, malnutrition and disease. 3. CULTURAL FACTORS > Culture influences well being of women especially > Generally they are: - less educated * Received less food * Receive less medical treatment * Forced into marriages * Shoulder child rearing * House work (grow food and cart water etc). 4. LITERACY > Improves health of family esp children > Knowledge allows individuals/families to - get higher paying jobs * Have more choices (reflects health) * Have smaller families * Access to safe water/ sanitation/food handling practises * Understand importance of immunisation/health care/ child monitoring/ maternal care etc. SUSTAINABLE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE > Results in independence from dependence o Involve the People- to ensure they have ownership of infrastructure and policies and have what they need o Choose the right type of aid to reach poor people- Aspects of PHC o Focus on women- ultimately responsible for the health of the community o Focus on Health- A healthier community is more productive o Focus on Education-Improving their knowledge and understanding of health in a culturally appropriate way. o Focus on Water and sanitation- poor water and sanitation is a significant cause to illness and death. > Improvements in health have been made through the implementation of PHC strategies: o Child Growth monitoring o Breastfeeding o Immunisation o ORT ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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