Health revision notes. Nutrition, Health and Development
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Health and Human Development Unit 3 Nutrition Health and Development Area of Study 1: Understanding Australia's Health * Measurement of Health Status: What is health? Health is a state of physical, emotional and social well being, as well as the absence of disease. It includes the ability to function effectively in ones environment given ones circumstances. * Physical Health: Refers to the state of the physical body, which includes level of fitness, the degree of energy, resistance to disease, efficient functioning of the body organs and maintenance of appropriate body weight to height. People who are physically healthy have the energy to perform a range of activities, they are alert, and their body systems respond and adapt accordingly. * Social Health: This component of health refers to the interaction between people. As humans are social beings and live in a community, they need to develop good quality relationships with family, friends and other peers. People who live interdependent, and cooperatively in a community are said to be socially healthy. * Emotional Health: This is to do with a person's state of mind, and their feelings. It includes how a person feels about themselves and the ability to cope and function in every day life, and to adapt to a range of demands and make appropriate decisions. Self esteem and self image are linked to emotional health. Measuring Health Status: Health status can be measured at either and individual level as well as a population level. An individual's health can be measured by: Blood test Fitness testing BMI Self assessment Psychological testing A population's health can be measured by: DALY's (disability adjusted life years. Calculated by YLL+YLD=1DALY) Years of life lost (YLL) This is a measurement of how many years of life expectancy are lost due to premature death, Years of life lost due to disability/disease (YLD).
* Gender: females generally have a better understanding and knowledge about foods, and are also usually the main cookers in a household * Social trends: increase in people working especially women means a decrease in the amount of cooking time that they have. Healthy choices are becoming more popular. * Body images: weight loss can lead to eating less which can lead to many illnesses. * Education: knowledge about what foods to eat and how to cook. * Ethnicity: religion, language, tradition, beliefs, lifestyle, access can all influence eating patterns. * Role of Governments in Promoting Healthy Eating The Commonwealth Government: the commonwealth government is responsible for policy making, funding for health promotion, and public health programs, nutrition education and research. Some examples of government funded programs and institutions are: * Australian Institute of Health and Welfare * National Health and Medical Research Council * Dietary Guidelines for Australia Many of Australia's policies for public health are written into the National Health Priority Areas and the National Health Strategies. The State Government: the main role of States and Territories in Public Health include: identification of public health issues, intervention, monitoring of outcomes, policy development, food safety, establishment of prevention and early detection programs including maternal and child health, health promotion for specific groups, an a range of other roles. The Local Government: The responsibilities of local governments include the monitoring of food safety, which includes the work of environmental health officers, the provision of meals on wheels, and the work of community nutritionists. Some areas have developed local food and nutrition policies. The role of nutrition in public health: In Australia the role of nutrition in public health is extremely important and is given much focus by many organizations. Public health nutrition focuses on issues affecting the whole population rather than specific dietary needs of individuals, and is addressed in various ways by both government and non government organizations.
It is required to prevent water-borne diseases, such as diarrhoea, which is a major cause of death to children under 5. Water is also an essential part of life, needed for all bodily processes, so an inadequate supply could greatly inhibit health and development. * Food and nutrition: This is ensuring an adequate supply of food and a balanced diet for everyone. An adequate supply of food is required to help prevent malnutrition, and an adequate well balanced diet provides people with the nutrient that they need to grow, develop, and have the energy to carry out everyday tasks. * Immunization/Disease control: this is ensuring that everyone is vaccinated against major diseases. It is very important for preventing many childhood diseases, and other diseases such as malaria, polio, typhoid etc. * Maternal and child health: This is ensuring trained birth attendants are available at all births. It also includes the promotion of family planning and child growth monitoring. It is important that the mothers are safe during child birth so they can look after the child once it is born and the children need to be monitored after birth to ensure they are developing correctly. * Curative care: this is giving countries the knowledge and resources for treating common diseases and injuries. It is a very important aspect for maintaining a countries basic health status * Health education: This is educating parents about the causes of ill health, and ways to promote good health. If people in a country know what is bad for them, and how to stay free from disease, it can prevent them from getting many conditions. * Essential Drugs: this is enabling people to have access to basic drugs and medication. If they are supplied at an affordable price, it can help treat many people and conditions. * Traditional medicine: this is important in a community as it is what they are used to using, and they feel comfortable with it. This means they can treat people, even those who are reluctant to get involved in an introduced health care system. ?? ?? ?? ??
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