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human development

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Introduction

For a human, there are many stages of development from birth to death. Each includes aspects of physical, intellectual, emotional and social development. Birth & Infancy (0-3 years) Physical development A new born baby has to take easily digestible food such as the mother's milk in order to grow. A newborn baby doesn't have fully developed organs such as the brain, however can hear sounds and tell the difference in things such as the taste in things and can identify smell senses, such as their mother or carer. Infants are born with various reflexes: * A new born baby will turn their head towards any touch on the cheek. This reflex is known as the rooting reflex and this can also help for the baby to get their mother's nipple into its mouth for the baby's feeding. * If you place your finger in the baby's palm, it will automatically grasp onto your finger, this is known as the grasp reflex. * If the baby is startled by something, a loud sound for example, the baby will throw arms and legs outwards, arching the back and straightening their legs. This reflex is called the startle reflex. * If a newborn baby is held upright with their feet touching the ground, they will make movements as if trying to walk. ...read more.

Middle

By the age of 6 children can often use language as well as some adults. Language develops between the ages of 2 and 6 years old. Between the age of 2 and 7 years, most children learn to count and to explain how much things weigh. Young children do not always fully understand the logic involved in counting and weighing things. When faced with problems to solve, young children make decisions based on what things look like rather than the logic of counting; for example, they will say that there are more sweets in a long line than in a small heap, even though they can count the same number in each. Older children do not make the mistakes that younger children do. But 7-12 year olds can often only understand the problem if they can see what is involved. Social Development. Young children still rely on their parents and carers to look after them. They need secure emotional ties with their family. As the children develop, they become more and more independent, but the family provide safety and a setting in which to learn social roles. Young children use their imagination to play-act social roles. Children learn how to behave socially through the process of socialisation in the family, which helps them to make friends when they to play group, nursery or school. ...read more.

Conclusion

Older adults may find that as well as coping with work pressures, they have to provide support for their parents and their children. When their children leave home, a lot of pressure is usually taken off the parent, however it can also make the parent feel that something out of their life is missing because their children no longer need their support. Many people now retire from full-time paid employment in there 50's, and most people retire in there 60's. Retirement can have a positive and negative view to it. It can be positive because it can be a positive release from pressures and can be negative because it is seen as an end to usefulness. After retirement, many people think this because of old age, many 65 year olds don't seem themselves as 'old'. When they get to 65+ its common to have physical changes such as: * Organs becoming weaker such as the heart, lungs. * Muscles and Skin becomes less useful, like weaker and not as 'elastic' * Joints and bones become less flexible and this can mean that people become less mobile. * Many people develop arthritis * Loss of hearing * Reaction times and speed of thinking slows down. Also the older the person maybe, the more they rely on people. Some of the older generation may need to live in a caring home and will not be able to provide for themselves. They will need regular visits from nurses and doctors for medicine etc. ...read more.

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