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Research into both, the short and long term effects of deprivation/separation (including Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis) and privation (e.g. Hodges & Tizard's study of institutionalisation.)

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Introduction

Emma Griffin 12M Psychology homework Research into both, the short and long term effects of deprivation/separation (including Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis) and privation (e.g. Hodges & Tizard's study of institutionalisation.) 1. State the difference between privation, deprivation and separation. (3+3+3) Deprivation refers to the loss of attachments through separation whereas privation refers to the lack of attachments (i.e. no attachments were ever formed) and separation refers to the physical disruption of the caregiver-child bond. SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF SEPARATION 2. At what age is a child most likely to show distress at separation, back up your answer with the relevant researchers. (3 marks) A child is most likely to show distress at separation at the age of 7 to 8 months old according to PALMS (the 5 phases of development of attachments). Schaffer and Emerson conducted an important study in Glasgow, observing the development of attachments in 60 infants and they were observed for over a year in their homes. Their findings consisted of most infants first showing signs of separation protest and stranger anxiety at around 7 months, indicating the onset for specific attachments. ...read more.

Middle

4. Describe the aim, method of research, procedure and findings of Bowlby's 44 thieves' study. Aim: To test the maternal deprivation hypothesis and to see if thieves were more likely to have experienced early separations during which they received little substitute care as it would suggest that early separations could lead to emotional maladjustment, supporting the maternal deprivation hypothesis. Procedure: Children interviewed were from 5 to 16, and all attended the Child Guidance Clinic. The experimental group consisted of 44 children who had been referred to the clinic as they had been caught stealing. A further 44 children acted as a control group. They were not thieves but had experienced emotional problems, for which they had been referred to the clinic. In addition Bowlby diagnosed 14 of the thieves as affectionless psychopaths - individuals who particularly lacked emotional sensitivity. The children and their parents were interviewed by Bowlby and his associates. Information was collected about their early life experiences, with particular attention paid to early separations. Findings: It was found that the affectionless thieves had experienced frequent early separations from their mothers. ...read more.

Conclusion

study. 12. How does Rutter's study be used to criticize Bowlby's research? PRIVATION 1. What is a definition of privation? Privation refers to the lack of attachments (i.e. no attachments were ever formed) 2. What two things have case studies demonstrated about being raised in isolation/deprivation? 3. Write the aim, method of research, procedure and results of the study into Genie. 4. Evaluate Genie. 5. Summarise the study into the Czech twin's. 6. Evaluate the Czech twin study. STUDIES OF INSTITUTIONALISATION 7. Write a definition of 'institutionalisation'. 8. Skodak and Skees carried out a study in 1949, describe it. 9. Describe Tizard and Hodges study into institutional care, in detail. (Key study) 10. Evaluate Tizard and Hodges study into institutional care. 11. What have been the positive outcomes of research into institutional care for children who go into it today? 12. What does Rutter et al (1998) research into Romanian Orphans suggest about orphanages? 13. In conclusion, are the effects of privation reversible? Justify your answer. 14. Write down three additional evaluation points. 15. Write a definition of 'reactive attachment disorder' and describe the symptoms. 16. What is thought to cause this disorder? 17. What evidence is there to support your answer to question 16? ...read more.

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