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the human lifespan

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´╗┐Santilla Povey Unit2 4 The human lifespan This assignment will define the terms development, developmental norms, life course, maturation and life expectancy. Then it will discuss what is meant by physical, intellectual, emotional and social development. Finally this assignment will explain the development milestones for each of the life stages which are conception, pregnancy, birth and infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, older adulthood and the final stages. Development means changes that might happen physical, intellectual, emotional, and social across the lifespan also, how people change and how they stay the same over time, this could be change in ability, quantity, height or weight. Development and delayed development is when a child takes time to develop achievement of one or more of their milestones. People might consider this child to be 'slow' or 'behind'. For example, a child may have less socialising and personal skills with a person who's more talented. Developing norms is described as an infants or child?s average set of expectations, for example, the average age at which a child walks, learns to talk, or reaches puberty. Life course means the expected stages of the human life cycle for example, an individual?s life events including birth, marriage, parenthood, divorce, and retirement. Maturation is the process of maturing and becoming full-grown or fully developed. Life expectancy is described as an estimate of how long a person may live. Physical means the stage of maturing biologically, intellectual means developing thinking and language skills, emotional means developing feelings about one self and others, social means forming relationships. Conception Conception is the fertilization of the egg, by the sperm and its implantation in the uterine wall. A man typically produces something like 200 million to 500 million sperm per ejaculation, but normally only one fertilises the egg. http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/pregnancy/pregnancy_trimester1_info.shtml Pregnancy At 1-9 weeks the physical development takes place as the fertilised egg known as a Blastocyst makes its way to the uterus and is developed into a baby, the baby grows bigger, developing in growth at the same time. ...read more.


Intellectual At around 4-5 years of age a child will start school and they will begin to organise their thoughts, and they will also learn new vocabulary as they listen to other children in their class, also they will be learning new words from their teachers. They start to see things form someone else?s point of view. At this stage children will start to work things out, but will need to see and touch things to understand and solve problems. A child at this stage will Listen eagerly to stories and will be able to repeat what happened, to be able to follow directions e.g., ?above,? ?under?, Defines words in terms of use e.g., car, pencil. Asks many questions e.g., why, what, how. Emotional Children still depend on their carers and close family. Children begin to imagine a ?me? ? an idea of self. Relationships with other family members may influence how a child feels valued ? a sense of self-worth. At this stage a child cam shows concern and sympathy, Loves adventure, excitement, anything new. As a child gets older they will be able to expresses emotions freely and openly. They may have anger outbursts and want to disobey. some children may show jealousy among classmates. Social By the age of 4 children need other children to play with. They understand how to take turns. They can be separated by their main carers without distress. By this age children are attending school and meeting lots of new children, and choose their group of close friends. They co-operate in games and understand rules and fairness. Because children understand more how others are feeling it becomes more important for them to have the approval of other children. Furthermore at around 7 years children are aware of sexual differences and prefer to play with the same sex this will continue till adolescence. Adolescence 10-18 years It begins from age 10 and typically ends at about 18 years of age. ...read more.


Other individuals who enjoy a good health and exercise their mind keep their mental abilities and continue to develop the knowledge. Some older individuals increase their ability to make wise decisions; the development of wisdom may increase at this age. Retirement at age 65 is a choice for many people, but some do work until later. Emotional Individuals continue to develop their sense of self as life progresses. The main sense of old age is keeping their sense of self-esteem despite the problems that can occur. Some old individuals have a risk of losing their self-confidence and self-esteem because of the way other people treat them. Old age individuals will have a good manner of behaviour, and they will also have a good bonding relationship with their grandchildren. Social Older individuals lead varied and different lives. Many retired people have a greater opportunity for meeting and making new friends that they did while they were working. A network of family and friends can provide vital practical and emotional support. Health problems and impairments can sometimes cause social isolation. They will have more relationships with people the same age as them; they will also take their norms and beliefs into more consideration. This will make them think more. The final stages The average life expectancy for men is about 72 years old, for women is about 79 years old. Physical Body cells have a limited ability to renew themselves. If cells cannot renew themselves, then we cannot repair ourselves and stay healthy. There is a tendency to sleep more. There is less desire to talk. This is the beginning of letting go of life and preparing for death, becomes less and less responsive to voice and touch. Lose interest in food and drink. The ability to swallow becomes impaired. Vital organs are shutting down. Constipation and incontinence, loss of control over bowel and bladder functions. Constipation may be caused by lack of mobility, pain medication, and decreased fluid intake. Intellectual Emotional The last stages of life can be very stressful for the dying person and those caring for him/her. Social http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-lifecourse.html http://pregnancy.about.com/od/newborntesting/a/Newborn-Reflexes.htm http://www.livestrong.com/article/193157-physical-development-during- ...read more.

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