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The principles, stages and sequences of growth and development in children

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The principles, stages and sequences of growth and development in children There are many developments throughout a child's life such as physical development, social and emotional development, intellectual development and communication development. Physical development is when the body changes and you start to develop fine motor skills such as writing. Social development is when you start meeting new people and become more involved in relationships and the society. Emotional development is when you start expressing your own feelings and emotions about different situations. Intellectual development is when you start learning new things, this is also called cognitive development. Communication development is when you start using speech to communicate and start listening to others talking. There are three main principles of development, the first one is that development starts from the head and works down the body, the second is the development happens in the same order no matter what but may occur at different rates and the last is that all area's of development are linked together. The five stages of development are infancy, early years, childhood, puberty and adolescence. ...read more.


The Moro reflex or "startle response" occurs when a newborn is startled by a noise or sudden movement. When he/she is startled, the infant reacts by flinging the arms and legs outward and extending the head. The infant then cries loudly, drawing the arms together. This reflex usually disappears after two months. During infancy a baby's body will be growing, its senses will become stronger and its personality will start to develop. An Infants physical abilities are: can lift head while lying on stomach, can roll over both ways, can sit without support, can pass an object from one hand to another, can stand holding on to someone or something, can pull up to standing position from sitting position, can pick up a tiny object and can walk holding on to furniture. An infant's social and emotional developments are: can respond positively to the main carer, can seek attention, can become interested with things around them, can recognise familiar and unfamiliar faces and can start to play alone. Infants intellectual developments are: can turn to soft light, can put everything in its mouth, can look in correct direction for falling toys, and can recognise familiar people at 6 metres. ...read more.


Communication developments made are: can give full name, age, address and birthday, can enjoy jokes and singing etc. and can accurately copy accents heard. Adolescence is the phase of switch from being a child to an adult. The decreases in physical developments are: brains can develop with increase of reaction time and co-ordination, for girl's puberty is complete at about 14 and period's start and for boy's puberty is 13-16 and they will become stronger than girls. The social and emotional developments that occur are: the body change and this therefore can upset self esteem, need to resolve changes in adulthood, want to spend more time with friends than family and peer pressure becomes a huge influence. Their intellectual developments are: will question sources of information, will become globally aware and choice relating to future education and careers being thought about. Finally the communication developments are: most children are fluent speakers, readers and writing of their language. In conclusion, development occurs throughout everyone's life no matter what. Things such as physical development, social and emotional development, intellectual development and communication development are all natural causes which help progress everyone's abilities. ?? ?? ?? ?? Tayyibah Ali ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

A very good essay that coves the main developmental areas and milestones.

There are a couple of areas that need a little more clarity - such as age ranges and the writer could add a little further detail to development in certain parts.


Marked by teacher Sam Morran 01/12/2012

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