• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Transactional Analysis and Games Theory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transactional Analysis and Games Theory Maksimova Maria Behaviour in organisation 99132681 ORG-06 Contents Introduction 3 Structural Analysis 4 Transactional Analysis 4 Types of Games 5 Situation 5 References 8 Bibliography 8 Introduction Transactional analysis is described by the ITAA (International Transactional Analysis Association) as "a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change". TA is a set of theories and techniques. The broad timetable for development of TA concepts was: 1955-1962 ego states 1962-1966 transactions and games 1966-1970 script analysis (Hay, p.2) In general Berne's theory (1964) outlines the importance of social intercourse for people's time-structuring, which is vital from biological side - in order to stimulate human's brain for mental health; the most gratifying examples of these are games and intimacy. After the period of the close intimacy with the mother the individual for the rest of his life strives for its attainment - there are biological, social, psychological forces, which stand in the way of physical intimacy in the infant style. It is possible in a form of compromise, a person learns to do with more subtle, symbolic forms of handling. This process of compromise can be called sublimation, it results in transforming from the infantile stimulus-hunger to the recognition-hunger. "Stroking" is used as a general term for intimate physical contact, in practice it can appear in different forms. ...read more.

Middle

...' This one is common in family relations(two-handed game, a spouse).At work, convention often prevents this game being played 'live', but it may well be rehearsed inwardly or to a colleague: 'If the boss hadn't had it in for me, I could have been running Area X by now'. * 'Why don't you ...'; 'Yes, but ...' (many-handed game). Other Games include 'You got me into this', 'There I go again', and 'Why don't you and he fight?' (three-handed game). For games analysis Berne proposes following methodology: defining Thesis, Aim, Roles, Dynamics, Examples (an illustration of the game as played in childhood + an illustration from adult life), Paradigm (critical transactions at the social and psychological levels), Moves (minimum number of transaction stimuli and transactional responses), Advantages, Relatives (complementary, allied, antithetical games). As Guirdham M. writes (p.11), at work, games inhibit effectiveness. Game analysis, therefore, according to Dave Barker 'represents a significant way of examining and dealing with dysfunctional relationships in organisations'. Certainly studying TA is one way of increasing awareness both of the self and of communications; in addition it provides a set of tools for motivating others: by addressing their Child, for instance, you may be able to stimulate their enthusiasm better than if you communicate only to their Adult, while by assuaging their Parent, some inhibitors to change can be removed. Finally, it can help you to achieve better work relationships if you, for instance, recognize that a 'Game' is about to begin, and counter with a pleasant stroke instead of a (temporarily) ...read more.

Conclusion

Antithesis - the contractual structure of a relationship with the NIGY player (an oragnisation lending money) should be explicitly stated in detail at the first opportunity, it's better in business situations to calculate all the risks before starting doing anything. Social paradigm - The woman's husband behaved himself like Adult: "Please help me, I've got a problem". And the woman also behaved as Adult: "Ok, we're going to resolve it together". Psychological Paradigm - Parent-Child. Parent: "You should obey me" Child: "OK, daddy, I'll do it" (innocent, not rational reaction) Moves (Transactional Paradigm) 1. Provocation- not recognizing it, blind Obeyance. 2. Defence-Accusation. 3. Defence-Punishment. 4. Punishment- Penance. Advantages * Internal Psychological - justification for own lack of action and consideration, weaknesses. * Internal Social - "Kick me". * External Psychological - avoiding confrontation of own deficiencies. * External Social - they're always out to get you. * Biological - belligerent exchanges. * Existential - people can't be trusted, everyone wants to deprive me. All these kinds of life games make the results for the parties like this - win/lose. Unfortunately, it's how it all constructed - Berne (p. 45) gives an example of classic insurance game - no matter what the agent appears to be doing in conversation, he is looking for or working on a prospect. Since the picture can be sophisticated due to the perconal issues such as happened in the case depicted above, it's better to be aware of roles, aims and games being played. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Child Development section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Child Development essays

  1. Health and Social care

    This can be troubling for family, in particular parents, as they will want to get the problem sorted as soon as possible. It may also be worrying to close friends, who also have concerns about what could happen if the problem is not shared.

  2. Why family structures are changing.

    Since Pete has received it he is much happier in his home and finds a lot of pressure has been taken off him. Family B have used a number of services from the NHS they have used the GP, the dentist, optician and speech therapist.

  1. DISCUSS HOW ONE CHILDHOOD CONDITION AFFECTS THE NORMAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD ...

    Insulin was discovered by Banting and Best in 1922 'subsequently saving millions of lives' (Bloom 1975:57). Until the 1980s, insulin was extracted from the pancreas of animals (pork and beef ) but insulin of human structure produced by genetic engineering is now used for most insulin preparations (Tatersall R: ).

  2. The main aim of this paper is to compare and contrast parental rights and ...

    In the case of any parent, he or she must understand that the effect of the adoption order is to permanently deprive him or her of his or her parental rights.80The consents should be in writing and they must be attested by one witness.81 Before making the adoption, order the

  1. Examining the advantages of creative activities to the client.

    The Health Requirements that are needed is that they should use the large pens as they will find it difficult to grip them if they are ordinary ones. Evaluation To see if they are pleased with the end result and also if they are able to re-use the calendar if they wished too.

  2. Explain the context, concept, lessons and recommendations from the Norsk Hydro's Utkal Venture case ...

    However Hydro had 'no bribe' policy, this policy must trump local Indian practices of corruption. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & HEALTH & SAFETY ISSUE:- The mining companies need to promote the transfer of clean technologies by generating less waste and increase recycling; and encouraging self-regulation, environmental research and development, worldwide corporate standards, and partnership schemes to improve access to clean technology.

  1. "The Scarlet Letter" - A Critical Analysis

    Hester and her Puritan minister, Arthur Dimmesdale, had fallen in love and had relations. What Dimmesdale never does have as the story progresses is the courage, or necessity, to own up to his adultery or hid fatherhood. While Hester is forced to stand for hours before the critical community, Governor

  2. Cach L2 unit 4. Childrens Play

    Work together with professionals from other agencies, such as local and community health services to provide the best learning opportunities for individual children. 10. EYFS (Early year?s foundation stage) help practioners to working with young children to provide challenging expectations and relevant, developmentally appropriate learning opportunities for babies and children.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work