• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What sort of factors need to be present if a child is to follow a normal process of language acquisition?

Extracts from this document...


WHAT SORT OF FACTORS NEED TO BE PRESENT IF A CHILD IS TO FOLLOW A NORMAL PROCESS OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION? Children's development of language takes place at different ages but certain factors are essential for this acquisition of language. The case study of 'Genie' is a perfect example of the factors needed to acquire language and the effects on the absence of these factors. Language acquisition is aided by several essential features: interaction with people; positive encouragement; mental stimulation and physiological development. The interaction between a child and a parent develops from birth. The continuing interaction between a young child and adults around them helps to develop their acquisition of language. The input theory of child language acquisition supports the interaction between children and parents and a major role in a child's development. The input theory suggests that using child directed speech is key to normal development of language. When using motherese, parents use simple sentences with few syllables to communicate with children. The lack of syllables allows the child to understand much easier. Along with simple sentences a parent would repeat phrases several times and use over emphasis to reinforce what they are saying to the child. Interacting with children gives them the opportunity to start to imitate what they hear. ...read more.


This theory could also be supported by imitation; a child could learn how to behave by imitating the behaviour of adults around them. The work of Nelson further developed Skinner's theories and it was found that children learnt much quicker if they were corrected over errors of fact rather than grammar and that positive correction was more effective than negative correction. In the case of Genie she was never encouraged to talk and was punished brutally for any mistake she made. After Genie was found she was given encouragement but the effects of her punishment stayed with her for a long time after her liberation. As a child gets older a major part of vocabulary development is from the ability to ask, "what's that". Introducing a child to different environments allows the stimulation of the child's mind. When going out into the wider world a child has the opportunity to ask what something is. This process allows the child to associate new words with different object. Children learn at this stage that objects can exist outside their viewpoint and stop using underextension. This allows the child to link inanimate objects to names that would have previously been lost. ...read more.


The case study of Genie is another good example of how her neglect contributed to her not being able to speak. Genie was given a diet of mashed up food therefore wasn't able to develop the necessary muscle needed to produce speech. In addition to her bad diet Genie could have been mentally retarded and that maybe a reason for her not progressing after she was rescued. Scientists did not find out whether the problems that Genie had were from birth or whether they were acquired through her neglect. The combination of interaction with people, mental stimulation, positive encouragement and physical development all play a major role in language acquisition. Genie was deprived of all these factors for many years and was found and taught to speak. Unfortunately Genie didn't progress past the two or three word stage. When Genie was found she had reached Lennenberg's 'critical age' and her story suggests that what he said was true and a child needs to acquire language before puberty in able to progress normally. Other cases such as 'Victor' and the 'Czech Twins' all support Lennenberg's theory as they were found before his 'critical age' and after integration into society progressed normally after a few years. Adam Weeks 12A English Language: Child Language Acquisition ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Child Development section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Child Development essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Child Development - Child Study

    4 star(s)

    Safety Issues - Play area at home and in the park. Making sure of supervision near roads and of observing safety rules in the park. Research/Norms Walks and runs alone up and down the stairs, one foot to a step in adult fashion.

  2. Child development - Study of a child

    I'm obviously going to look at her physical skills in making the biscuits. Emotional development comes into it slightly in her confidence and ability to cope with the new situations. Expectations of the visit I think she will understand what she has to do though when I'm in the kitchen

  1. To what extent can it be said that play is a social, cognitive and ...

    What was interesting in the task was the development of technology. The children now use paper drills. However there could have been a better selection of textiles with different textures. There were very often particular friendship groups that appeared to be same sex orientated.

  2. For my child development study I am going to observe how a child shows ...

    I asked Hilary if she knew what colours the leaves were and she said green. I think that she knew they were green straight away because there were no other colours around for her to get confused with, although she got confused with blue and green before.

  1. Why family structures are changing.

    The legislation also provides money to refuges this allows women a place to turn to; it provides a safe environment for the family and allows them to continue their lives free from abuse.

  2. Compare how Fanthorpe and Scannel present the experience of being a child in “Half-past ...

    "Into the smell of old chrysanthemums on Her desk, Into the silent noise his hangnail made, Into the air outside the window, into ever." There is a definite negative aspect presented by Fanthorpe, this is highlighted by the use of the words "old" and "into ever."

  1. Discuss And Evaluate The Role of Motherese in Acquiring A Language.

    Compared to adult to adult speech, motherese exhibits, greater pitch range, especially at the higher end; lexical simplification characterised by the diminutive ("doggie") and syllable reduplication (consonant-verb syllable repetition); shorter less complex utterances; less dysfluency; more paraphrasing and repetition; limited, concrete vocabulary and a restricted set of semantic relations; more contextual support and more directives and questions.

  2. Basic Normal Stages of Child Development

    Can now imitate sounds and respond to simple commands, should be able to say a few simple words Emotional development continues as the child starts to understand the feelings of fear and curiosity. Can now be responsive to own name and can give and take objects, and can play slightly

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work