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According to sources A, B and C, What were ghettos and why were they established by the Nazi's? Make particular reference to the Warsaw ghetto in your answer.

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Introduction

Question 2; According to sources A, B and C, What were ghettos and why were they established by the Nazi's? Make particular reference to the Warsaw ghetto in your answer. While writing this essay I will address the question of what Jewish ghettos were and why the Nazi's established them. In the course of this essay I will use particular reference to, and examine, the sources A, B, and C and will use them in association with my answer. During the period of 1939 to 1945 the Nazi's established over 350 ghettos through out Poland, the Soviet Union, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Hungary. As part of their 'dream' to eliminate all of the European Jews, the Nazis adopted a policy which was known as 'Judenfrei'. Whilst the Nazis conquered Eastern European towns, cities, and even whole countries, the Special Action Groups, under the control of the Nazi SS leaders Himmler and Heydrich, gathered up all the Jews in the whole of Europe, and banished them to cordoned-off areas. From these the Jews had no escape. In such big cities as Warsaw, these ghettos were closed in and walled off so that what was about to become could not be seen from outside its walls. ...read more.

Middle

Disease was very much rampant, poor standards of living and cramped conditions meant it was easy for diseases to spread. It also became a daily occurrence if somebody died of disease. The running of the ghetto was imposed by the Nazi's onto a Jewish council. This council had its own appointed police force and ran the day-to-day operations that were occurring inside the ghetto. It also provided healthy and fit Jews, which were over 16 years of age, for forced labour. Their work shift consisted of 12 gruelling hours of hard manual labour. This included factory work, building roads, digging tunnels and loading and unloading vehicles. In their weak state they could not handle the severity of such work, thus it killed them. In some cases, when the Jewish workers became exhausted or weak, the Nazi guards casually shot them through the head. The ghettos had a very high number of facilities which were in place to make their regime run easier. One Nazi Colonel Zeitung reported on 5th April 1941 that whilst these 'holding posts' were, "a mere prelude to the solution of the Jewish question, it has turned out to be the best and most perfect temporary solution of the Jewish question." ...read more.

Conclusion

Source B also gives reference to the fact that these ghetto were to be cordoned-off areas for it attributes Heydrich as nothing that, " to facilitate this concentration...... orders would probably have been given forbidding Jews to enter certain districts of that city altogether." Now we know that Heydrich played an instrumental part in the planning of the 'Final Solution', and clearly links these stages to the establishment of the ghettos as a prelude to the ultimate aim of complete extermination of all Jews in Europe. Lastly, source B shows us that the cordoning-off, or in Warsaw's case, the building of walls around the ghetto (which the Jews were forced to build), was a well planned strategy. Source C also contains an extract from a Martin Gilbert publication, Final Journey: The Fate of the Jews in Nazi Europe. This source is also an ideal secondary source, in which, the evidence concentrates on the creation of ghettos, and the deadline for the Poles to move out of the designated area and the deadline for the Jewish population of Europe to move inside of this area. The source also focuses of the sealing-off of the ghetto, but also refers closely to the walls that enclosed the Jews within the ghetto area of Warsaw. ...read more.

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