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Account for the formation of the two opposing armed camps in Europe during the period of 1871-1914. How did the Alliance System contribute to the outbreak of the First World War?

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Account for the formation of the two opposing armed camps in Europe during the period of 1871-1914. How did the Alliance System contribute to the outbreak of the First World War? Answer: The "Alliance System" refers to the formation of military alliances or conclusion?? of ententes?? among the European powers during the period of 1871-1914. The Alliance System was first devised?? by Bismarck; it was one of the underlying causes?? leading to the outbreak of the First World War. The Alliance System during the period of 1871-1890 was called the Bismarckian System. In the Franco-Prussian War, France was utterly defeated??. By the Treaty of Frankfurt 1871 France was to cede Alsace-Lorraine, and pay an indemnity of 5 billion francs to Germany. To prevent the French attempt of revenge?? and the possibility of a two-front war, as well as to consolidate?? ...read more.


Germany and Italy would support each other if attacked by France. So far, Bismarck succeeded in creating a large league of powers, crossing from the Baltic???? in the north to the Adriatic????? in the south. The Bulgarian Crisis of 1885-87 suddenly worsened the Austro-Russian relations. Fearing that Russia might ally with France, in 1887 Bismarck concluded the Reinsurance?? Treaty with Russia. Without telling Austria-Hungary, he promised German neutrality to Russia if she was attacked by Austria-Hungary. Bismarck's fall from power in 1890 marked the beginning of the Post-Bismarckian Era. Kaiser William II no longer valued?? Russia's friendship. He refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty. Instead, he adopted an aggressive foreign policy of "Weltpolitik????". He was not afraid of a Franco-Russian two-front war against Germany, but aimed at "a place in the sun" by challenging the British naval and commercial supremacy. ...read more.


In 1905, for example, William II provoked the First Moroccan Crisis in order to see whether or not the Entente Cordiale really existed. Secondly, the Alliance System promoted armament races, too. Anglo-French military cooperation increased after the Second Moroccan Crisis of 1911. Finally, the Alliance System was likely to change a local war to a general war with its chain-effect????. After the Sarajevo Assassination?????? of June 1914, Germany supported Austria-Hungary unconditionally against both Serbia and Russia. She also declared war on France since France was Russia's ally. Yet not all the powers entered the First World War because of the Alliance System. Britain declared war on Germany because William II insisted on invading France via?? Belgium. Not only the Belgian neutrality but the British national security was threatened. Italy did not help Germany in 1914 because she had already reached secret agreements with France in 1900-02. To sum up, the Alliance System complicated the international relations of Europe and added fire to the outbreak of the First World War. 1 ...read more.

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