• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Analyse and evaluate the validity of these two interpretations of the opposition to the Nazis in Germany during this period.

Extracts from this document...


Analyse and evaluate the validity of these two interpretations of the opposition to the Nazis in Germany during this period. The two extracts address the issue of youth opposition to the Nazis during the period 1933-1945. Source A an extract from an analysis "What was the extent of the opposition to Hitler's regime?" by S. J. Lee (1998) suggests that despite a centralised youth movement, the Nazis failed to maintain complete control and influence of all of Germany's youth. One consequence of this was the emergence of "alternative" and even opposition cultures and groups" among Germany's youth. Source B by Collier and Pedley writing in the text book "Germany 1919-1945" (2000) also identifies elements of dissatisfaction with the regime but implies that the affinity of young people with the Nazi dictatorship was "sustained". Adolescents were not the only opposition provided by the youth, the students, especially those in Berlin and the major cities, where metropolitan lifestyles encouraged such behaviour were rife. The most notable was the White Rose movement, but there was numerous dissent from the ranks of the students, in the form of pamphlet distribution on the lines of anti-Nazism. The alternative groups that challenged the Hitler Youth did so out of resentment for the lack of liberty they had under the regime, and the emergence of the "jazz" and American trends such as swing and chewing gum made these people further affiliated with something other than Germany. ...read more.


These facts help show the validity of source A, they actually proved to be opposition to the Nazis, and as is explained partook in a wide range of acts to belittle the regime. One of the main goals of the Edelweiss pirates was to challenge the Hitler Youth, they didn't merely dislike it, and they despised the members of it. Source B takes a different view; it is clear that M. Collier and P. Pedley think that the youth of Germany remained true to Nazism. It is has been established that these are academic historians, and that it is a recent production. The first line is fact, by 1939 there were indeed 7.5 million Hitler Youth Members, claiming approximately 90% of the population of youths. It says that by 1939, The source mentions dissatisfaction with the Nazis with "young people became disaffected by growing regimentation, petty restriction and ineffective and ageing youth leaders. Also, the fact remains that these other groups remained a minority, as a whole representing only around ten percent of the population of the youth. Membership remained high in the Hitler Youth, through fear, both by parents and the children themselves, through them still being inspired due to the camaraderie in it, and by the fact that Hitler Youth members were far more employable in Germany by this time, especially in the civil service. So this shows that there was an "affinity of young people with the dictatorship" and it was upheld. ...read more.


To conclude, I would like to point out that Hitler placed the utmost importance on controlling and converting the youth to the Nazi cause even going so far in one speech to say people hostile to the regime were unimportant as "your child belongs to us already", he saw them as the future of Nazism. The presence of these "counter-cultural" groups, (for example, the Edelweisspiraten), therefore, were seen as a failure to Hitler, and as they were deemed so important their opposition was dealt with brutally. This fact means that the youths were bold and brave in taking place in even the most trivial resistance. The fact that these youths counted for a substantial minority of the population, especially in large German cities such as Dusseldorf and Munich shows that there was more than an element of opposition, and this got worse as the war went on and the youths started to assist the allied war effort. The idea that the Nazis were achieving a Volksgemeinschaft falls down here as well, as these groups showed a desire to have a separate and individual cultural identity. This shows that there were non-conformists, and as source B says, even though there were 7.5 million Hitler Youth members in 1939, youth enthusiasm for the regime did fall, even before the collapse of the regime. So the sources are proven to be reliable to a certain extent and are to be trusted in an evaluation of the opposition that the Nazis faced; though more sources are needed to give a substantiated judgement on the opposition which will enable us to gain a fuller picture of the topic. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Germany 1918-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Germany 1918-1939 essays

  1. Nazi Strengths and Opposition Weaknesses

    which unfortunately, which was exactly what it didn't need during the depression. The people knew however that one strong leader could take firm decisive action and so could prevent the depression from happening once again. Scheming Of Hindenburg And Von Papen Hindenburg and Von Papen both thought that in turn they could hold Hitler down and they were both wrong.

  2. "The most important reason why there was little opposition in Germany towards the Nazi ...

    These were all seen as propaganda victories, but Hitler took it one step too far by forming an alliance with Russia then moving in to invade Poland.

  1. Did The Nazis Succeed in Controlling the Hearts and Minds of German Youth?

    to break up these groups the members were treated more leniently than other groups such as the Jews; although Himmler, Hitler's Head of the SS, suggested putting the members in concentration camps too, this was avoided so as not to alienate the youth of Germany.

  2. Life under the Nazis - who was better and worse off.

    In conclusion life under the Nazi's was different for different types of people. For some life was on an all time high, such if you were a large business owner. For people like the Jews it became a living hell.

  1. Between 1933 and 1945 Hitler and the Nazi Part were successful in their creation ...

    It clearly states that a woman's place is at home, being a mother, and it is therefore unnecessary to hold a job, particularly one in a typical male field, source 5 even implies that a woman holding a professional job is not a woman in the eyes of the Nazis, as it says, "We (the Nazis)

  2. How Far Did The Nazis Control Everyday Life In Germany After 1933

    The most spectacular form of propaganda Goebbels used was the mass rallies. The most famous of these rallies were held Nuremberg for an entire week in August every year. They were held in 4 specially built areas just outside the town, each area could hold 400,000 people.

  1. How far did the Nazis control everydaylife in Germany after 1933?

    The Nazi government used a mixture of force, and rewards to try to win workers support. They banned trade unions in 1933, in case they tried to organise opposition against Hitler. But Hitler also created a lot of jobs. The number of unemployment's dropped spectacularly from 6 million to 300,000!

  2. Describe the Opposition to the Nazis in Germany.

    The most notable emigrants are of course Albert Einstein. Many landlords, lawyers and diplomats had disliked the Nazis from the off. The military were in favour of Hitler at first due to the desire he had to make Germany great again but started disliking them for the Nazi?s recklessness and policies.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work