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bloody sunday assignment 1

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Introduction

Ireland Assignment 1 Ireland is divided into two, religiously and politically. Religiously it is divided into the Roman Catholics, and the Protestants. This effects the country politically as the Catholics are Republicans and the Protestants are Unionists. It has lead to the split in Ireland, and causes a lot of violence. This violence has gotten so extreme that it has led to British troops entering Northern Ireland to help the situation. Why were British Troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969? Ireland's history has always been affected by England, due to how close it is. As in the 16th century Ireland had a majority of Roman Catholics in the country and England was going through its Protestant Reformation (because King Henry VIII wanted a divorce as the Pope refused to grant him an annulment) Ireland's stance politically became of interest to England. It was thought of as a "backdoor" to England, especially since Hitler had talked of Ireland being a base for attack on the west ports of England. As Ireland was still a Catholic country along with many others, it became more of a potential ally for those who were also Roman Catholic rather than Protestant England. This led to the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century, as England took over Ireland. This encouraged English and Scottish Protestants to settle in Ireland, so that the Protestant population would increase. Scottish Protestants mainly settled in the north-east of Ireland and were known as Presbyterians. Land was stolen from Catholics, causing a revolt in 1641. William III came to be the new Protestant King of England as he defeated James II, the previous Catholic King of England. The battle took place at the Boyne River, so it is known as the Battle of the Boyne. The Protestant minority now controlled the Catholic minority. As England went to war with Catholic France, William III passed a series of laws to object the alliance of France and Ireland. ...read more.

Middle

Including Monaghan, Cavan and Donegal but they were not to be included in the new Ulster as they did not have a Protestant majority. The Ulster Unionists were not all convinced but did not oppose to the bill- so the Government of Ireland Act in December 1920 and a Government and Parliament of Northern Ireland were established within the following year. Now that the state of Northern Ireland was made of a Protestant majority (two thirds) and a Catholic minority (one third), it became a state which was run by Protestants for themselves. To kick start the problems the IRA conducted a violent campaign against the new state in the year 1920's. The Unionists, of course, suspected the parliament in Dublin to be supporting this so they set up a special force, the B-Specials, to help the police deal with the IRA. Furthermore, there was immense segregation, not only because of the separate religious views did they go to different churches but also pubs and schools- and this was only the start of it all. In 1926, Lord Londonderry attempted to end this segregation in education but once he resigned his plans were blocked. These are some of the factors that enhanced the segregation: � Catholics refusal to enter political life gave definite power to the Protestants- making sure they were still in control; � There was a worldwide economic depression as which made jobs scarce and this competition for jobs led to increased violence; � The Catholic minority felt isolated; � Elections were fixed to always give Protestant majorities, this was called Gerry Mandering; � Overall, Catholics got the worst and lowest paid jobs; poorest housing; and fewer opportunities than Protestants. They were also the first to be made redundant if need be. But as we advanced into the 1960's there was a growth of Civil Rights movements, by those who were oppressed for basic civil and human rights. ...read more.

Conclusion

of house was set up; � Gerrymandering in elections was ended; � Government grants were given to industry in Ulster to reduce unemployment. If you compare these measures to what the Catholics demanded in their Civil Rights movement, they are very similar. But the Catholics now insisted that these measures did not go far enough- perhaps because how immense the levels of bitterness and hatred had grown to. The Protestants were not pleased with these measures as they saw the British government as traitors to them, and not really on the same side as them as they would have expected to have been on. The Catholics then began to see the troops as another way of the Britain to control Catholics in Ulster rather than as protectors. Some of these Catholics turned to Dublin for help- Jack Lynch (who was Prime Minister of the Irish Republic) called for United Nations troops to be sent in as they would be the most neutral, rather than British or Irish troops invading the Ulster. As the RUC and British army had failed to protect the Catholics, they had begun to turn to the IRA, who were much more extreme and believed in using violence. The Westminster government saw the reasons of the British troops going into the Ulster as, to reform the police force and B-specials (and to put them under army control), to put an end to discrimination in housing and gerrymandering of local authorities and invest grants in Northern Ireland to decrease the unemployment problem. I personally think that the main reason that they troops were sent into the Ulster was to calm the situation before a civil war broke out- and many more people were killed. The riots and battles were getting far too out of hand, and there was no neutral party in Northern Ireland before the troops arrived. And even now that the troops had arrived there was no saying whether they were actually biased to Protestants or Catholics either. Nazish Abbas ...read more.

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