• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Britain in The Age of Total War 1939-45

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Britain in the Age of Total War 1939-45 Helena Gardner Why were the major cities of Britain bombed by the Germans in 1940 - 1941? When France surrendered to the Nazis on 22nd June 1940, Britain was left vulnerable to a Nazi invasion. When Britain did not surrender as France had, Hitler decided to launch Operation Sealion, which was the invasion of Britain. The Germans initially attacked ships, but successful RAF attacks on German ships demonstrated that the RAF had to be destroyed before Operation Sealion could go ahead. This was the Battle of Britain, which was fought in British airspace between the RAF and the Luftwaffe. Eventually Britain won after nearly two months of hard fighting, due to the distance that the German fighters had to travel, radar technology, and the superior Spitfire and Hurricane aircraft. The Nazis decided to call off Operation Sealion on 7th September 1940, and try a different tactic: heavy bombing of major British cities, such as London, Birmingham, Coventry and Bristol. ...read more.

Middle

Overall, Hitler hoped that bombing major cities, he could destroy the British ability to wage war, through reducing industrial output and by crushing civilian morale, thus forcing the government to surrender. 415 words Describe the effects of the Blitz on everyday life in Britain The Blitz was part of 'total war' - that is, everyone, whether civilian or soldier, man or woman, adult or child was affected. Never before had women and children been affected to such a great extent by war. Each night, hundreds of tonnes of bombs would be dropped by the Luftwaffe on major cities, such as London, Portsmouth and Southampton. This meant that it was necessary for residents to seek shelter from the bombs. The Anderson shelter was dug into the back garden and the Morrison shelter fitted under a dining table and protected people from flying debris. Thousands of Londoners sheltered in the Underground, although 60% stayed in their own homes throughout the war. ...read more.

Conclusion

ARP wardens were employed to make sure that regulations such as the blackout were followed. The government believed that a large number of child deaths would lower morale, and so, between 1st and 4th of September 1939, 1.4m people, mostly children, were evacuated to the countryside. Never before had the classes mixed as they did during evacuation. Some found it impossible to adapt to this new way of living, and because no bombs fell on the cities, parents began to fetch their children home again. However, when the Blitz did begin, these children had to be re-evacuated, but even more refused to be evacuated than before - only 47% of London children were evacuated. This caused thousands of unnecessary mortalities throughout the Blitz. Overall, the Blitz caused more damage to houses than factories, due to a lack of precision bombing. This 'carpet bombing' affected the British public more than precision bombing ever could as families, homes, and basic services were lost, not just workplaces. 546 words ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE History Projects essays

  1. WHY HAD INTERNATIONAL PEACE COLLAPSED BY 1939?

    The horror of war lived on after 1918. Public opinion strongly supported disarmament. 5. The Government believed the next war would be fought in the air and that thousandsa of civilians would be killed by bombing raids. It wanted to avoid this.

  2. success of evacuation

    This source criticises the government for not being much organised. This source is a biased source because it criticises the government and states negative things about evacuation. This source may be unreliable because it is a secondary source and it is one persons view.

  1. Gallic war

    Caesar used this as an excuse to attack the Helvetti; they were defeated and returned to their original homeland. - Caesar then turned his attention to the German tribe led by King Ariovistus; this tribe had begun to make alliances with other Gallic tribes (Seubi and Sequari).

  2. Describe the changes in life in Germany between 1930 and 1939

    for teenage girls. Boys would join these schemes at the age of six, and girls at the age of ten. They would take place in the evening, with map skills and scout-like activities for boys and sports and motherhood exercises for girls. Membership to such schemes became obligatory from 1936.

  1. In what ways were the lives of children on the home front affected by ...

    If you "lost" your ration booklet you could get another but some got carried away and got loads for different ration booklets. Children had food coming to their mouths but saw their mothers getting stressed about getting caught or losing a booklet.

  2. Roman Britain and Vindolanda

    This shows that at some time there must have been peace as a birthday wouldn't have been thrown in the middle of a siege or if there was any indication there was going to be a battle.

  1. The British faced the Blitz with courage and unity ?

    So the accuracy of this statement is questionable. We must also take into account the purpose of the source; it was written to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Blitz, so we know the author is unlikely to include many, if any, negative observations of the British during the Blitz.

  2. How did the Cold War begin?

    Therefore he was determined to institute a similar thing to the Great Purge to reduce the number of people who opposed Communism and hoped to make Eastern Europe Soviet's satellites countries. He achieved this aim by holding the election taken place in January 1947 in which he intimidated voters and changed the voting lists as he desired.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work