• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Britain in The Age of Total War 1939-45

Extracts from this document...


Britain in the Age of Total War 1939-45 Helena Gardner Why were the major cities of Britain bombed by the Germans in 1940 - 1941? When France surrendered to the Nazis on 22nd June 1940, Britain was left vulnerable to a Nazi invasion. When Britain did not surrender as France had, Hitler decided to launch Operation Sealion, which was the invasion of Britain. The Germans initially attacked ships, but successful RAF attacks on German ships demonstrated that the RAF had to be destroyed before Operation Sealion could go ahead. This was the Battle of Britain, which was fought in British airspace between the RAF and the Luftwaffe. Eventually Britain won after nearly two months of hard fighting, due to the distance that the German fighters had to travel, radar technology, and the superior Spitfire and Hurricane aircraft. The Nazis decided to call off Operation Sealion on 7th September 1940, and try a different tactic: heavy bombing of major British cities, such as London, Birmingham, Coventry and Bristol. ...read more.


Overall, Hitler hoped that bombing major cities, he could destroy the British ability to wage war, through reducing industrial output and by crushing civilian morale, thus forcing the government to surrender. 415 words Describe the effects of the Blitz on everyday life in Britain The Blitz was part of 'total war' - that is, everyone, whether civilian or soldier, man or woman, adult or child was affected. Never before had women and children been affected to such a great extent by war. Each night, hundreds of tonnes of bombs would be dropped by the Luftwaffe on major cities, such as London, Portsmouth and Southampton. This meant that it was necessary for residents to seek shelter from the bombs. The Anderson shelter was dug into the back garden and the Morrison shelter fitted under a dining table and protected people from flying debris. Thousands of Londoners sheltered in the Underground, although 60% stayed in their own homes throughout the war. ...read more.


ARP wardens were employed to make sure that regulations such as the blackout were followed. The government believed that a large number of child deaths would lower morale, and so, between 1st and 4th of September 1939, 1.4m people, mostly children, were evacuated to the countryside. Never before had the classes mixed as they did during evacuation. Some found it impossible to adapt to this new way of living, and because no bombs fell on the cities, parents began to fetch their children home again. However, when the Blitz did begin, these children had to be re-evacuated, but even more refused to be evacuated than before - only 47% of London children were evacuated. This caused thousands of unnecessary mortalities throughout the Blitz. Overall, the Blitz caused more damage to houses than factories, due to a lack of precision bombing. This 'carpet bombing' affected the British public more than precision bombing ever could as families, homes, and basic services were lost, not just workplaces. 546 words ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE History Projects essays


    Many British people: a) felt guilty that the Treaty of Versailles had been too harsh, b) sympathised with the German desire to bring German-speaking peoples into one nation. Arguments Against Appeasement 1. Agressors have no 'final demands'. The more they are given the more they will try to take.

  2. success of evacuation

    The main purpose of the source was to show how evacuees lacked hygiene. Source 'F' is again an interview with a person who was an evacuee in 1939. In source F an evacuee looks back at evacuation. 'It is just as upsetting for a clean and a well educated child

  1. Describe the changes in life in Germany between 1930 and 1939

    Although it was difficult to openly protest against the Nazis, some young people did not agree with Hitler's views, such as the later White Rose Group (1941 onwards), who were several University students from Munich who handed out leaflets against Hitler.

  2. Gallic war

    * Caesar/Cicero spoke in favour of appointing Pompey ? bill was passed. Pompey's Eastern Settlement * Pompey's subsequent military successes against Mithridates/Tigranes largely based on hard campaigning of Lucullus before him; resources of Mithridates/Tigranes was severely depleted by Lucullus and so posed no real threat.

  1. In what ways were the lives of children on the home front affected by ...

    Confectionery was scarce and often shared amongst each other. There was less confectionery in the areas further from main chocolatiers and it wasn't fair on those children. There wasn't a good choice of sweets and children got gobstoppers or pear drops to share. It was one of the last items on ration and after the war children had to

  2. The British faced the Blitz with courage and unity ?

    So the accuracy of this statement is questionable. We must also take into account the purpose of the source; it was written to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Blitz, so we know the author is unlikely to include many, if any, negative observations of the British during the Blitz.

  1. London during the Blitz

    In the third sentence he says '...if only the Germans had the sense not to bomb west of London Bridge there might be a revolution in this country', here he says that it is just as well, basically, that the Germans bombed in the West End or the people in the East End would feel even more bitter.

  2. Roman Britain and Vindolanda

    model reconstruction of the British Settlement and source 13 a written statement which shows that many Britons lived as they always had show. Source nine also contradicts this statement as it is a military report, which indicates signs of fighting, so if there was battles and fighting the civilians could

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work