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By the end of the first world war British rule was still strong in India but this would not be the case for much longer. Many thousands of Indians fought in the first world war believing that in return they would be given home rule of their country

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Since 1858 the British government took over responsibility of governing India. Indeed they held a very dominant position as 60% of India was in their control and 40% was governed by the Indian princes. The princes ruled their land on the condition that they would except the main rulers of India were still be British and that they agreed to sign treaties with the British making them loyal supporters of the British Raj. India was directly ruled by the Viceroy who was appointed by the British parliament and a representative of the Monarch. Also the secretary of state for India was the government minister responsible for Indian affairs. ...read more.


The Indians seemed to benefit from the war as there was Huge demands for Indian cotton and other raw materials which led to arising employment. India desperately wanted reform and independence, but as time progressed the British realized the Indians desire for this and were not ready to give up ruling India easily. The British attitude to the Indians was clear, they expected "a certain standard or courtesy or politeness from the Indians and mixing only for official purposes." In order to please the Indians the Morley Minto reforms were passed which were brought about by the secretary of state for India and the viceroy as one of the many reforms giving greater representation to Indian. ...read more.


Furthermore there outbreaks of violence in Punjab which increased when no statement was made by the British government of home rule. Therefore lord Chelmsford and the second of state of India E.S Montagau recommended there should be reform in India, which became known as Montagau Chelmsford reform and practiced in the 1919 Indian act. Preceding this, was Rowlett acts were passed by commission as a solution on how the British government was losing control of the situation. The act extending the defence of Indian act into peacetime. The Indians were outraged by such steps which reconfirmed the British having ultimate control over Indians. There was no intention of self rule. So Rowlett acts were opposed by Indian men of imperial legislation council. The acts proud Montague Chelmsford reform were meaningless. ...read more.

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