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Chinese Socialism

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5. (a.) What is "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics"? (b.) What achievements did the PRC make and what problems did she face in her socialist construction of modernization after 1978? (a.) In December, 1978, The CPC announced a shift in policy. The focus of work would change from proletarian move and class struggle to economic development and socialist modernization. This marked the new era of "Reform and Openness". China became a socialist state after 1956. However, the socialism in China is different form the one described in Marxism. It was merely absolute equalitarianism in an agrarian society with low productivity and insufficient capitalist economic development. Then in 1982, Deng proposed the idea of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics", pointing out China was in the "primary stage of socialism". The major ideas of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics" are as follows: Firstly, being in the primary stage of socialism, China need about 100 years to accomplish socialist modernization, meaning the "Four Modernization", they are the modernization of industry, farming, defence and science and technology. Secondly, China should focus on economic construction, improve productivity, and develop technology. ...read more.


Thus, the government began to transform them into share companies and limited companies in the 1990s. The CPC had always adopted a planned economy and implemented a series of Five- Year Plans, after 1978, however, it started to realise the importance of market economy as well. The result was a "Socialist market economy", which was an integration of planned and market economies. More and more people engaged in business. Stock markets began to operate in Shenzhen and Shanghai. The markets in towns and villages were also getting more and more prosperous. During the last 20 years of the 20th century, production increased rapidly in the PRC. Her average economic growth rate between 1979 and 1999 was 9.5% per year. Such economic improvement raised the living standard of the people. For example, the average annual income of a peasant increased from RMB �130 to RMB � 2200 in 1999. Industrial development led to urbanization. After 1978, more and more peasants took up non- agricultural jobs and moved to towns or cities. The population increased as a result. ...read more.


Many new laws and regulations were made. But loopholes could still be found in the legal system. For example, the economic laws in China could not be applied to the management o modern enterprises. When a lawsuit was filed, there were no clear guidelines or procedures to follow. In the political system, there were also no proper regulations or effective mechanisms for the election, supervision, impeachment, dismissal and punishment of Party and government leaders. Many corrupt officials remained in office without any punishment or criticism. In 1989, the June 4th incident took place in Beijing. One of the reasons why university students had gathered in the Tiananmen Square was to protest against corruption, bureaucracy and other social problems. Although the Party has already started to fight against corruption, such a problem remains unsolved at moment. In conclusion, though there are certain limitations, China's socialist construction of modernization after 1978 is a great success and brings China toward prosperity. China's role in the world and in Asia has become more important, as the new "Industrial Workshop", the biggest market and investment venue in Asia, the driving force behind economic cooperation within Asia- Pacific Rim and an important peacemaking force in Asia. ...read more.

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